The association of sarcopenia and osteoporosis and their role in falls and fractures (literature review)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26641/2307-0404.2021.2.234637

Keywords:

sarcopenia, osteosarcopenia, prevalence, metabolic disorders, falls, fractures

Abstract

The progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength leads to sarcopenia in elderly people. A new geriatric syndrome has been revealed – osteosarcopenia (osteosarcoporosis), which combines low bone mineral density with reduced muscle mass, strength and functional activity. The review presents data on the peculiarities of manifestation of these syndromes, the mechanisms of which are multifactorial and continue to be investigated. They are associated with genetic factors, lifestyle – lack of physical activity and malnutrition. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia involves mechanisms of chronic inflammation, changes in endocrine function, disturbance of neuromuscular connections and low reparation level. Sarcopenia correlates with low quality of life, disability, and death. The review analyzes the prevalence of sarcopenia which increases with age. However, there are conflicting results in the populations, which may be related to different clinical conditions, patient area, lifestyle and the use of different assessment criteria. The analysis of sarcopenia prevalence in men and women showed ambiguous results related to the studied population, involvement of different age groups of patients, different evaluation methods. Metabolic disorders in muscular and bone tissues were summarized on the basis of the analysis of the cross-influence of regulatory factors and metabolism products of these tissues; a close metabolic and functional association between them was shown. Fat infiltration of atrophied muscles and bone marrow is common in patients with sarcopenia and osteosarcoporosis, which affects muscle and bone tissue. Lipotoxicity and local inflammation stimulate the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Literature analysis has shown controversial data on the association of sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia with falls and fractures, but based on meta-analysis data, which include an extensive body of information, it should be noted that individuals with sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia are more at risk of falls and fractures and require special special attention. The most common fracture in osteosarcopenia is the hip fracture.

References

Povoroznyuk V, Dzerovych N. [Sarcopenia (literature review)]. Journal of the NAMSU. 2019;25(3):321-31. Ukrainian.

Mokrysheva NG, Krupinova JA, Volodicheva LV, Mirnaya SS, Melnichenko GA. [A view at sarco¬penia by endocrinologist]. Obesity and Metabolism. 2018;1(3):21-27. Russian. doi: https://doi.org/10.14341/OMET9792

Safonova YA. [Sarcopenia risk factor for falls and fractures]. The Clinician. 2019;13(3-4):22-28. Russian. doi: https://doi.org/10.17650/1818-8338-2019-13-3-4-22-28

Shostak NA, Muradyantz AA, Kondrashov AA. [Sarcopenia and overlapping syndromes: their value in clinical practice]. The Clinician. 2016;10(3):10-14. Russian.

doi: https://doi.org/10.17650/1818-8338-2016-10-3-10-14

Anker SD, Morley JE, von Haehling S. Welcome to the ICD-10 code for sarcopenia. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016;7(5):512-4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12147

Scott D, Johansson J, McMillan LB, Ebeling PR, Nordstrom P, Nordstrom A. Associations of Sarcopenia and Its Components with Bone Structure and Incident Falls in Swedish Older Adults. Calcif Tissue Int [Internet]. 2019;105(1):26-36. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-019-00540-1.

Kim J, Lee Y, Kye S, Chung YS, Lee O. Asso¬cia¬tion of serum vitamin D with osteosarcopenic obesity: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017;8(2):259-66.

doi: https://doi.org/ 10.1002/jcsm.12154

Intriago M, Maldonado G, Guerrero R, Messi¬na OD, Rios C. Bone Mass Loss and Sarcopenia in Ecuadorian Patients. J Aging Res. 2020;2020, Article ID 1072675. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1072675

Cedeno-Veloz B, López-Dóriga Bonnardeauxa P, Duque G. Osteosarcopenia: A narrative review. Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia. Ediciones Doyma, S.L.; 2019;54:103-8. doi : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regg.2018.09.010

Scott D, Seibel M, Cumming R, Naganathan V, Blyth F, Le Couteur DG, et al. Does combined osteope¬nia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia confer greater risk of falls and fracture than either condition alone in older men? The concord health and ageing in men project. Journals Gerontol – Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019;74(6):827–34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gly162

Anand A, Shetty AP, Renjith KR, Sri Vijay Anand KS, Kanna RM, Rajasekaran S. Does Sarcopenia increase the risk for fresh vertebral fragility fractures?: A case-control study. Asian Spine J. 2020;14(1):17-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31616/asj.2019.0049

Chang C Di, Wu JS, Mhuircheartaigh JN, Hoch¬man MG, Rodriguez EK, Appleton PT, et al. Effect of sarcopenia on clinical and surgical outcome in elderly patients with proximal femur fractures. Skeletal Radiol. 2018 Jun 1;47(6):771-7.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00256-017-2848-6

Falcon LJ, Harris-Love MO. Sarcopenia and the New ICD-10-CM Code: Screening, Staging, and Diagnosis Considerations. Fed Pract. 2017;34(7):24-32. PMCID: PMC5576154.

Zhang X, Huang P, Dou Q, Wang C, Zhang W, Yang Y, et al. Falls among older adults with sarcopenia dwelling in nursing home or community: A meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 2020;39(1):33-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.01.002

Simmonds SJ, Syddall HE, Westbury LD, Dodds RM, Cooper C, Aihie Sayer A. Grip strength among community-dwelling older people predicts hospital admission during the following decade. Age Ageing. 2015;44(6):954-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv146

Hassan EB, Duque G. Osteosarcopenia: A new geriatric syndrome. Aust Fam Physician. 2017;46(11):849-53. PMID: 29101922.

Suriyaarachchi P, Gomez F, Curcio CL, Boersma D, Murthy L, Grill V, et al. High parathyroid hormone levels are associated with osteosarcopenia in older individuals with a history of falling. Maturitas. 2018 Decem.;113:21-25. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.04.006

Hirschfeld HP, Kinsella R, Duque G. Osteosar¬copenia: where bone, muscle, and fat collide. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(10):2781-90. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-4151-8

Yoshimura N, Muraki S, Oka H, Iidaka T, Kodama R, Kawaguchi H, et al. Is osteoporosis a predictor for future sarcopenia or vice versa? Four-year observations between the second and third ROAD study surveys. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(1):189-99. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-016-3823-0

Lee J-K, Yoon B-H, Oh CH, Kim JG, Han S-H. Is Sarcopenia a Potential Risk Factor for Distal Radius Fracture? Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching. J Bone Metab. 2018;25(2):99. doi: https://doi.org/10.11005/jbm.2018.25.2.99

Kawao N, Kaji H. Interactions between muscle tissues and bone metabolism. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116(5):687-95. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.25040

Kaji H. Effects of myokines on bone. Bonekey Rep. 2016;5(July):1-6.

doi: https://doi.org/ 10.1038/bonekey.2016.48

Kirk B, Al Saedi A, Duque G. Osteosarcopenia: A case of geroscience. Aging Med. 2019;2(3):147-56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/agm2.12080

Kirk B, Zanker J, Duque G. Osteosarcopenia: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment – facts and numbers. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2020;11(3):609-18. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12567

Yoo J Il, Kim H, Ha YC, Kwon H Bin, Koo KH. Osteosarcopenia in patients with hip fracture is related with high mortality. J Korean Med Sci. 2018;33(4):1-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e27

Drey M, Sieber CC, Bertsch T, Bauer JM, Schmidmaier R. The FiAT intervention group. Osteosarcopenia is more than sarcopenia and osteopenia alone. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2016;28(5):895-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-015-0494-1

Huo YR, Suriyaarachchi P, Gomez F, Curcio CL, Boersma D, Muir SW, et al. Phenotype of Osteosarcopenia in Older Individuals With a History of Falling. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015;16(4):290-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2014.10.018

Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Schneider SM, Zúñiga C, Arai H, Boirie Y, et al. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: A systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age Ageing. 2014 Nov 1;43(6):48-759. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afu115

Ho AWH, Lee MML, Chan EWC, Ng HMY, Lee CW, Ng WS, et al. Prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia in Hong Kong chinese geriatric patients with hip fracture and its correlation with different factors. Hong Kong Med J. 2016;22(1):23-29. doi: https://doi.org/10.12809/hkmj154570

González-Montalvo JI, Alarcón T, Gotor P, Queipo R, Velasco R, Hoyos R, et al. Prevalence of sarcopenia in acute hip fracture patients and its influence on short-term clinical outcome. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2016;16(9):1021-7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12590

Shafiee G, Keshtkar A, Soltani A, Ahadi Z, Larijani B, Heshmat R. Prevalence of sarcopenia in the world: A systematic review and meta-analysis of general population studies. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2017;16(1):1-10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2019.09.005

Rosenberg IH. Symposium: Sarcopenia: Diagnosis and Mechanisms Sarcopenia: Origins and Clinical Relevance 1. J Nutr. 1997;127:990-1.

Yeung SSY, Reijnierse EM, Pham VK, Trappenburg MC, Lim WK, Meskers CGM, et al. Sarcopenia and its association with falls and fractures in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019;10(3):485-500. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12411

Landi F, Liperoti R, Russo A, Giovannini S, Tosato M, Capoluongo E, et al. Sarcopenia as a risk factor for falls in elderly individuals: Results from the ilSIRENTE study. Clin Nutr. 2012;31(5):652-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2012.02.007

Lo JH, U KP, Yiu T, Ong MT, Lee WY. Sarcopenia: Current treatments and new regenerative therapeutic approaches. J Orthop Transl. 2020;23:38-52. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2020.04.002

Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J, Boirie Y, Bruyère O, Cederholm T, et al. Sarcopenia: Revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age and Ageing. Oxford University Press; 2019;48:16-31. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afy169

Schaap LA, Van Schoor NM, Lips P, Visser M. Associations of sarcopenia definitions, and their components, with the incidence of recurrent falling and fractures: The longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. Journals Gerontol – Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(9):1199-204. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glx245

Du Y, Wang X, Xie H, Zheng S, Wu Xi, Zhu X, Zhang X, Xue S, Li H, Hong W, Tang W, Chen M, Cheng Q, Sun J. Sex differences in the prevalence and adverse outcomes of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in community dwelling elderly in East China using the AWGS criteria. BMC Endocr Disord. 2019;19(1):109. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12902-019-0432-x

Ethgen O, Beaudart C, Buckinx F, Bruyère O, Reginster JY. The Future Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Europe: A Claim for Public Health Action. Calcif Tissue Int. 2017;100(3):229-34.

doi: https://doi.org/doi: 10.1007/s00223-016-0220-9

Chen YP, Wong PK, Tsai MJ, Chang WC, Hsieh TS, Leu TH, et al. The high prevalence of sarcopenia and its associated outcomes following hip surgery in Taiwanese geriatric patients with a hip fracture. J Formos Med Assoc. 2020 Feb 24;S0929-6646(20)30041-3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.02.004

Reijnierse EM, Trappenburg MC, Leter MJ, Blauw GJ, Sipilä S, Sillanpää E, et al. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sar¬copenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients. Gerontology. 2015;61(6):491-6. doi: https://doi.org/doi: 10.1159/000377699

Sepúlveda-Loyola W, Phu S, Bani Hassan E, Brennan-Olsen SL, Zanker J, Vogrin S, et al. The Joint Occurrence of Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia (Osteosar¬copenia): Definitions and Characteristics. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020;21(2):220-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2019.09.005

Wong RMY, Wong H, Zhang N, Chow SKH, Chau WW, Wang J, et al. The relationship between sarcopenia and fragility fracture – a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2019;30(3):541-53. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-018-04828-0

Wilson D, Jackson T, Sapey E, Lord JM. Frailty and sarcopenia: The potential role of an aged immune system. Ageing Res Rev. 2017;36:1-10. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2017.01.006

Yu R, Leung J, Woo J. Incremental predictive value of sarcopenia for incident fracture in an elderly chinese cohort: Results from the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOs) study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014;15(8):551-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2014.02.005

Downloads

Published

2021-06-18

How to Cite

1.
Povoroznyuk V, Dedukh N, Bystrytska M, Dzerovych N, Shapovalov V. The association of sarcopenia and osteoporosis and their role in falls and fractures (literature review). Med. perspekt. [Internet]. 2021Jun.18 [cited 2024Apr.15];26(2):111-9. Available from: https://journals.uran.ua/index.php/2307-0404/article/view/234637

Issue

Section

CLINICAL MEDICINE