Assessment of the safety of priority carcinogenic substances at the level of hygienic regulations in atmospheric air
Keywords:carcinogenic substances, hygienic standards, atmospheric air, carcinogenic risk, reference concentrations
The aim of this work was to assess the risk of carcinogenic substances with a proven danger to humans at the level of current maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). The results were obtained on the basis of the collection and analysis of data on chemical carcinogenic compounds that are included in the national regulatory base of permissible content in the atmospheric air of populated areas, as well as the base of Directives of EU countries and the International Agency for the Study of Cancer using bibliosemantic, bibliographic and hygienic research methods. At the same time, the chemical substances classified by experts from International Agency for Research on Cancer in terms of carcinogenicity to humans were taken into consideration: definitely carcinogenic (group 1), probably (group 2A) and possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). As a result, 52 compounds were identified in the list of carcinogenic substances normalized in atmospheric air, of which 12 substances are assigned to group 1, 13 to group 2A, and 27 to group 2B. In this work, only substances of the first group were subject to in-depth analysis. To assess the danger of substances’ concentrations at the level of maximum permissible concentrations, risk indicators according to the recommended methodical documents were determined. Calculations of the carcinogenic risk caused by the concentrations of these substances at the level of hygienic regulations for the atmospheric air of populated areas proved that only for two compounds (benzo/a/pyrene and formaldehyde) the risk is acceptable and meets the international standards recommended by EU and WHO. For other substances of this group, the carcinogenic risk of exposure is excessive. A conclusion was made regarding the need to review the existing hygienic standards from the standpoint of risk and consider them in the future as annual averages. In order to solve this issue, the criterion scale "concentration - carcinogenic risk" was highlighted in the work, with the help of which it was proposed to determine the maximum permissible concentrations according to the indicators of risk acceptable for the conditions of Ukraine.
Yanysheva NYa, Antomonov YuA, Albert RE, Altschuler B, Friedman L. Approaches to the Formulation of Standards for Carcinogenic Substances in the Environ-ment. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1979;30:81-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.793081
On the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work. Directive 2019/130 of the European Parliament and of the Council Official. Journal of the European Union. 2019;31(1):112.
Braakhuis HM, Slob W, Olthof ED, et al. Is Cur-rent Risk Assessment of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogens Protective? Crit Rev Toxicol. 2018;48:500-11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1458818
Fukushima S, Gi M, Fujioka M, et al. Quantitative Approaches to Assess Key Carcinogenic Events of Genotoxic Carcinogens. Toxicol Res. 2018;34(4):291-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2018.34.4.291
Wollin KM, Apel P, Chovolou Y, et al. Concept for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Substances in Population-Based Human Biomonitoring. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(12):7235. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127235
Hartwig A, Arand M, Epe B, et al. Mode of action-based risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens. Arch Toxicol. 2020;94(6):1777-87. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02733-2
[Hygienic regulations. Maximum permissible concentrations of chemical and biological substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas. Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine No. 52, 2020 Jan 14]. [Internet]. 2020. [cited 2023 Feb 09]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov/ua
[Methodological recommendations 2.2.12 – 142-2007. Assessment of the risk to public health from atmospheric air pollution]. Kyiv; 2007. 39 p. Ukrainian.
Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. [Internet]. 2018. [cited 2023 Feb 09]. Available from: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls/index.html
Chernychenko IO, Lytvychenko OM, Babii VF, Harkavyi SI, Balenko NV, Kondratenko OIe, et al. [Regarding the revision of the regulatory framework of chemical carcinogens in the air environment according to the risk criterion]. Dovkillia ta zdorovia. 2022;2:42-8. Ukrainian. doi: https://doi.org/10.32402/dovkil2022.02.042
Air quality and health: fact sheet on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): health targets. World Health Organization [Internet]. [cited 2023 Feb 09]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/340799/WHO-EURO-2018-2376-42131-58026-eng.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
Air quality Standards. European Commission, 2019. [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2023 Feb 09]. Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/_data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf
A Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes. Reference Dose / Reference Concentration (RfD/RfC) Technical Panel. [Internet]. Washington, DC: Risk Assessment Forum. US EPA; 2002. [cited 2023 Feb 09]. 192 p. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2014-12/documents/rfd-final.pdf
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Medicni perspektivi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Submitting manuscript to the journal "Medicni perspektivi" the author(s) agree with transferring copyright from the author(s) to publisher (including photos, figures, tables, etc.) editor, reproducing materials of the manuscript in the journal, Internet, translation into other languages, export and import of the issue with the author’s article, spreading without limitation of their period of validity both on the territory of Ukraine and other countries. This and other mutual duties of the author and all co-authors separately and editorial board are secured by written agreement by special form to use the article, the sample of which is presented on the site.
Author signs a written agreement and sends it to Editorial Board simultaneously with submission of the manuscript.