Association of the feeling of anxiety and the phenomenon of inferiority

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26641/2307-0404.2023.3.289202

Keywords:

phenomenon of inferiority, feeling of anxiety, index of inferiority, index of superiority, absence of the phenomenon of altered self-esteem

Abstract

The phenomenon of inferiority as a key concept of Adler's theory of psychology can contribute to the appearance of social anxiety. Since both anxiety and feeling of inferiority have an impact on mental and somatic health, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of the phenomenon of inferiority with the feeling of anxiety. During October-November 2021 in the course of the study, a questionnaire survey of 612 students of higher education institutions of Lviv was conducted. Two questionnaires were used for the survey: the Comparative Feeling of Inferiority Index and Beck's Anxiety Inventory. The analysis of the findings was performed using the methods of descriptive (median, 25% and 75% quartiles, percentages with 95% confidence intervals) and analytical statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's post-hoc paired test, Pearson's test). The research established that the feeling of anxiety is characteristic of 54.95% [45.67-64.07] of the respondents with the Index of Superiority, 48.84% [34.17-63.61] of the respondents with the Index of Inferiority and 43.91% [39.60-48.28] of respondents with the absence of the phenomenon of altered self-esteem (Norma). Median scores on Beck's Anxiety Inventory were significantly higher in individuals with the index of superiority – 8.5 [5; 16.3] points. A comparison of the presence of anxiety by gender showed that anxiety symptoms are significantly more common in women than in men: 57.85% [51.82-63.77] vs 37.04% [32.07-42.15] respectively, p<0.001. Anxiety is most often characteristic of women with the index of superiority – 76.67% [60.16-89.79]) of women in this group. The value of the findings is determined by the fact that in Ukraine this is the first scientific study regarding the research of the association of the phenomenon of inferiority and anxiety in adult population with using proven and valid questionnaires that are actively used by scientists around the world.

References

Adler A. Compulsion neurosis. International Journal of Individual Psychology. 1936;2:3-22.

Strano DA, Dixon PN. The Comparative Feeling of Inferiority Index. Individual Psychology: The Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice. 1990;46(1):29-42.

Akdoğan R, Çimşir E. Linking inferiority feelings to subjective happiness: Self-concealment and loneliness as serial mediators. Personality and Individual Differences. 2019;149:14-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.05.028

Li J, Jia S, Wang L, Zhang M, Chen S. Relation-ships among inferiority feelings, fear of negative evaluation, and social anxiety in Chinese junior high school students. Front Psychol. 2023;13:1015477. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1015477

Liu Y, Xu C, Kuai X, Deng H, Wang K, Luo Q. Analysis of the causes of inferiority feelings based on social media data with Word2Vec. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):5218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09075-2

Wang S, Shi X, Zhu Y, Wang Z. Factor structure of the Chinese version of the Screen for Adult Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARRED). Asian J Psychiatr. 2022;73:103159. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2022.103159

Akdogan R, Aydın M, Eken H. Understanding the contribution of abnormal inferiority feelings on insecure attachment through gender and culture: A study of university students seeking psychological support. The Journal of Individual Psychology. 2018;74(1):96-116. doi: https://doi.org/10.1353/jip.2018.0006

Filts O, Fitkalo O, Lyzak O, Berezyuk O, Mysha-kivska O, Samsonova L, et al. Toward a cohesive clinical interpretation of mental disorders in SARS-CoV-2 pan-demic: An expert opinion Proceedings of the Shev¬chenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences. 2021;64(1):155-60. doi: https://doi.org/10.25040/ntsh2021.01.15

Robinson OJ, Pike AC, Cornwell B, Grillon C. The translational neural circuitry of anxiety. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2019;90(12):1353-60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2019-321400

Andreescu C, Lee S. Anxiety Disorders in the Elderly. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1191:561-76. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9705-0_28

Penninx BW, Pine DS, Holmes EA, Reif A. An-xiety disorders. Lancet. 2021;397(10277):914-27. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00359-7

Pang Z, Tu D, Cai Y. Psychometric Properties of the SAS, BAI, and S-AI in Chinese University Students. Front Psychol. 2019;10:93. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00093

Beck AT, Steer RA. Beck Anxiety Inventory manual. San Antonio; TX: Psychological Corporation, 1993.

Garcia JM, Gallagher MW, O'Bryant SE, Medina LD. Differential item functioning of the Beck Anxiety Inventory in a rural, multiethnic cohort. J Affect Disord. 2021;293:36-42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.005

Akdoğan R, Çimşir E. Collectivistic ambivalence: A potential source of social anxiety for individuals with higher inferiority feelings, International Journal of Inter-cultural Relations. 2022;89:195-207. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2022.07.003

Berezyuk O, Filts O, Hrabchak V, Sirko R. Questionnaire of comparative feeling of inferiority index: translation, validation and experience of use in Ukraine. Reports of Vinnytsia National Medical University. 2022;26(4):633-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.31393/reports-vnmedical-2022-26(4)-20

Belka B, Muzyka I, Gutor T, Zayachkivska O. Comparable Characteristics Of Biologically Driven Eating Behavior In Different Ethnic Groups Of Medical Students. Proc Shevchenko Sci Soc Med Sci. 2020;59(1):137-43. doi: https://doi.org/10.25040/ntsh2020.01.15

Schober P, Vetter TR. Analysis of Variance in Medical Research. Anesth Analg. 2020;131(2):508-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004839

Sedykh KV, Filts OO, Bantser VI, et al. [Basics of psychotherapy: a study guide]. Alma-mater. Akademiia. 2017. 192 p. Ukrainian.

Gilbert P, McEwan K, Bellew R, Mills A, Gale C. The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm. Psychol Psychother. 2009;82(Pt 2):123-36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1348/147608308X379806

Kumaraswamy N. Academic Stress, Anxiety and Depression among College Students- A Brief Review. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2013;5(1):135-43.

Si Yu, Chunyang Zhang, Yuyang Zhou, Yiwei Shi, Wei Xu. Longitudinal relationship between inferiority and maladjustment among college students: The mediation of dispositional mindfulness and moderation of left-behind experience. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020;116:105249. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105249

Published

2023-09-29

How to Cite

1.
Berezyuk O, Filts O. Association of the feeling of anxiety and the phenomenon of inferiority. Med. perspekt. [Internet]. 2023Sep.29 [cited 2024Mar.3];28(3):86-93. Available from: https://journals.uran.ua/index.php/2307-0404/article/view/289202

Issue

Section

CLINICAL MEDICINE