Healthy nutrition as a disease prevention factor: WHO Policy and National Experience (to mark the 75th anniversary of WHO in Ukraine)

Authors

  • M.P. Gulich SI “O.M. Marzіeiev Institute for Public Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Popudrenka str., 50, Kyiv, 02094, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1708-3012
  • O.D. Petrenko SI “O.M. Marzіeiev Institute for Public Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Popudrenka str., 50, Kyiv, 02094, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5819-1901

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26641/2307-0404.2023.3.289218

Keywords:

healthy nutrition, prevention of chronic diseases, WHO policy, legislative and regulatory acts of Ukraine, healthy eating habits

Abstract

In the context of the constant increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases, the World Health Organization's (WHO) activities are aimed at developing policies and strategies in the field of non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention, which have been continuously evolving. The work is dedicated to examining the sequential policy of the WHO outlined in documents regarding the link between nutrition and the development of non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study is to identify the main stages of WHO's policy on healthy nutrition as a key prerequisite for preventing the development of non-communicable diseases and outline the corresponding measures in Ukraine. Materials and methods: informational, bibliographic, normative-legal. The study utilized systematic-structural, formal-logical, bibliographic, and non-forma­lized (traditional) analysis methods. An analysis of WHO's policy on healthy nutrition as a factor in preventing the development of chronic non-communicable diseases has been conducted. The key stages of policy development and decision-making at the global level over the past three decades have been identified. It has been determined that the evolution of the role of nutrition within WHO's policy has progressed from urging governments to develop national food policies and create national action plans in the 1990s to global strategies and actions that have taken place in the 21st century. The basic WHO documents regarding the link between nutrition and the development of chronic diseases have been examined, as well as the expansion of understanding the content and necessity of healthy nutrition. The implementation of WHO's policy in Ukraine has been highlighted: the "National Action Plan on Non-communicable Diseases to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030" (2018) has been developed and implemented, serving as a roadmap for the development of a series of guiding documents. The most important of these documents pertain to the organization and standards of healthy nutrition for children. However, the formation of a national regulatory and legal framework regarding healthy nutrition has not yet been completed. It has been determined that Ukraine needs to improve its policy on limiting the use of saturated fats, industrially produced trans fatty acids, and marketing unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverages targeted at children. There is a need for extensive informational and educational activities to promote WHO's recommendations on healthy nutrition.

References

Food and health in Europe: WHO regional publications european series [Internet]. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; WHO Regional Publications European Series 96. 2004 [cited 2023 Jul 15]; 385 p. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272255/9789289013635-eng.pdf?sequence=3

Murray CJ, Aravkin AY, Zheng P, et al. Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet [Internet]. 2020 Oct [cited 2023 Jul 15];396(10258):1223-49. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30752-2

Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. World Health Organization technical report series, 797 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1990 [cited 2023 Jul 15]; 203 p. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/39426

Martini D, Tucci M, Bradfield J, Di Giorgio A, Marino M, Del Bo' C, et al. Principles of Sustainable Healthy Diets in Worldwide Dietary Guidelines: Efforts So Far and Future Perspectives. Nutrients [Internet]. 2021 May 27 [cited 2023 Jul 9];13(6):1827. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061827

Afshin A, Sur PJ, Fay KA, et al. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet [Internet]. 2019 May [cited 2023 Jul 15];393(10184):1958-72. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(19)30041-8

International Conference on Nutrition : final report of the Conference, Rome, December 1992 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992 [cited 2023 Jul 15]; 65 p. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/61254

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003 [cited 2023 Jul 15]; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 916. Available from: http://whglibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_916.pdf

Comparative Analysis of Nutrition Policies in WHO European Member States [Internet]. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 1998 Oct [cited 2023 Jul 15]; 72 p. EUR/ICP/LVNG 01 02 01. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108120

Gassner L, Zechmeister-Koss I, Reinsperger I. National Strategies for Preventing and Managing Non-communicable Diseases in Selected Countries. Frontiers in Public Health [Internet]. 2022 Feb 10 [cited 2023 Jul 9];10. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.838051

Djojosoeparto SK, Kamphuis CB, Vandevijvere S, Murrin C, Stanley I, Romaniuk P, et al. Strength of EU-level food environment policies and priority recom-mendations to create healthy food environments. European Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2022 Mar 9 [cited 2023 Jul 12]. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckac010

Rao P, Rodriguez RL, Shoemaker SP. Addressing the sugar, salt, and fat issue the science of food way. npj Science of Food [Internet]. 2018 Jul 16 [cited 2023 Jun 28];2(1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41538-018-0020-x

Milajerdi A, Djafarian K, Shab-Bidar S. Dose–response association of dietary sodium intake with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Public Health Nutrition [Internet]. 2018 Oct 22 [cited 2023 Jun 28];22(2):295-306. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980018002112

Jessri M, Hennessey D, Bader Eddeen A, Bennett C, Zhang Z, Yang Q, et al. Sodium, Added Sugar and Saturated Fat Intake in Relation to Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease Events in Adults: Canadian National Nutrition Survey Linked with Vital Statistics and Health Administrative Databases. British Journal of Nutrition [Internet]. 2022 Apr 8 [cited 2023 Jun 28]:1-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/s000711452200099x

Khendel NV. [Organizational and legal aspects of the World Health Organization as a coordinating universal organization]. Aktualni problemy polityky [Internet]. 2020 Jan 23 [cited 2023 Jul 12];(64):145-58. Ukrainian. doi: https://doi.org/10.32837/app.v0i64.193

Holdenberh TV. [The main directions of interna-tional legal cooperation of the Ukraine with the World Health Organization]. Naukovyi visnyk Mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho universytetu. Ser.: Yurysprudentsiia [Internet]. 2018[cited 2023 Jul 12];36(2):179-82. Ukrainian. Available from: https://vestnik-pravo.mgu.od.ua/archive/juspradenc36/part_2/44.pdf

World Health Organization (WHO) [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jul 14]. Available from: https://www.who.int/

European Union [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jul 14]. Available from: https://european-union.europa.eu/

U.S. Food and Drug Administration [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jul 14]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/

[Ministry of Health of Ukraine]. [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jul 14]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://moz.gov.ua

National Library of Ukraine named after VI. Vernadskyi [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jul 14]. Ukrainian. Available from: http://nbuv.gov.ua/

Sountrywide integrated noncommunicable disease intervention (CINDI) phogramme [Internet]. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 1996 [cited 2023 Jul 14]. 200 p. Available from: http://whqlibdok.who.int/hq/1994/EUR_ICP_CINDI_94.02_PB04.pdf

CINDI dietary guide [Internet]. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2000 [cited 2023 Jul 14]. 32 p. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108342

Nishida C, Uauy R, Kumanyika S, Shetty P. The Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: process, product and policy implications. Public Health Nutrition [Internet]. 2004 Feb [cited 2023 Jun 28];7(1a):245-50. doi: https://doi.org/10.1079/phn2003592

Li C, Cobb LK, Vesper HW, Asma S. Global Surveillance of trans-Fatty Acids. Preventing Chronic Disease [Internet]. 2019 Oct 31 [cited 2023 Jun 28];16. doi: https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.190121

World Health Organization (WHO) [Internet]. Noncommunicable diseases; 2022 Sep 16 [cited 2023 Jun 27]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases

WHA55.23. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health [Internet]. [place, publisher, date unknown]. WHA55.23 [cited 2023 Jun 27]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA57/A57_R17-en.pdf

The First Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy. WHO European Region 2000-2005 [Internet]. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2001 [cited 2023 Jun 27]. 41 p. EUR/01/5026013. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108379

WHO European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy 2007–2012 [Internet]. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2008 [cited 2023 Jun 27]. 28 p. 4245-44004-62047. WHO/EURO:2008. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/349767?search-result=true&query=second+action+plan&current-scope=10665/107133&rpp=10&sort_by=score&order=desc

European food and nutrition action plan 2015-2020 [Internet]. Copenhagen: World Health Organization; 2014 [cited 2023 Jun 27]. 24 p. EUR/RC64/14 EUR/RC64/Conf.Doc./8. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/337971/64wd14e-FoodAndNutritionAP-140426.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Thirteenth general programme of work 2019–2023 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 [cited 2023 Jun 27]. 53 p. WHO/PRP/18.1. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/thirteenth-general-programme-of-work-2019-2023

Garde A, Zrilič J. International Investment Law and Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention. The Journal of World Investment & Trade [Internet]. 2020 Oct 14 [cited 2023 Jul 12];21(5):649-73. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/22119000-12340190

Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013-2020 [Internet]. Geneva: WHO Document Production Services; 2013 [cited 2023 Jul 12]. 55 p. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241506236

Cena H, Calder PC. Defining a Healthy Diet: Evidence for the Role of Contemporary Dietary Patterns in Health and Disease. Nutrients [Internet]. 2020 Jan 27 [cited 2023 Jul 12];12(2):334. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020334

Framework for Action. In: Second International Conference on Nutrition; 2014 Nov 19-21; Rome, Italy. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization; 2014. p. 1-8.

World Health Organization (WHO) [Internet]. Healthy diet; 2020 Apr 29 [cited 2023 Jun 27]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/healthy-diet

Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. 59 p. WHO/NMH/NHD/15.2. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241549028

Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. 56 p. WHO/NMH/NHD/13.2. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/77985/9789241504836_eng.pdf

Messerli FH, Hofstetter L, Syrogiannouli L, Rex-haj E, Siontis GC, Seiler C, et al. Sodium intake, life expectancy, and all-cause mortality. European Heart Journal [Internet]. 2020 Dec 22 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa947

Li C, Cobb LK, Vesper HW, Asma S. Global Surveillance of trans-Fatty Acids. Preventing Chronic Disease [Internet]. 2019 Oct 31 [cited 2023 Jun 28];16. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.190121

Guidelines: Saturated fatty acid and trans-fatty acid intake for adults and children [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. 101 p. Available from: https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/nutritionlibrary/cfs-vgfsyn/draft-who-sfa-tfa-guidelines-public-consultation.pdf?sfvrsn=dc29c6af_5

Technical consultation on setting global sodium benchmarks for different food categories: report of a virtual meeting [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. 36 p. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/353331

Grosso G, Di Cesare M. Dietary factors and non-communicable disease risk in Europe: evidence for Euro-pean nutritional guidelines? European Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2021 Oct 1 [cited 2023 Jul 9];31(Suppl 3). doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab164.185

Ahmad R, Akter F, Haque M. Editorial: Diet and nutrition for non-communicable diseases in low and middle-income countries. Frontiers in Nutrition [Internet]. 2023 Mar 28 [cited 2023 Jul 12];10. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1179640

Mikkelsen B, Williams J, Rakovac I, Wickrama-singhe K, Hennis A, Shin HR, et al. Life course approach to prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. BMJ [Internet]. 2019 Jan 28 [cited 2023 Jul 15]:l257. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l257

Fanzo J, Rudie C, Sigman I, Grinspoon S, Benton TG, Brown ME, et al. Sustainable food systems and nutrition in the 21st century: A report from the 22nd annual harvard nutrition obesity symposium. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [Internet]. 2021 Sep 15 [cited 2023 Jul 15]. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab315

Buoncristiano M, Spinelli A, Williams J, Nardone P, Rito AI, García‐Solano M, et al. Childhood over-weight and obesity in Europe: Changes from 2007 to 2017. Obesity Reviews [Internet]. 2021 Aug 10 [cited 2023 Jul 15]. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13226

Report of the commission on ending childhood obesity [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 [cited 2023 Jul 15]. 65 p. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241510066

WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (‎COSI)‎ Report on the fourth round of data collection, 2015–2017 [Internet]. Copenhagen: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2021 [cited 2023 Jul 15]. 90 p. 2495-42251-58349. WHO/EURO:2021. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/341189

Chrissini MM, Panagiotakos DB. Public health interventions tackling childhood obesity at European level: A literature review. Preventive Medicine Reports [Internet]. 2022 Dec [cited 2023 Jun 28];30:102068. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2022.102068

Romanelli R, Cecchi N, Carbone MG, Dinardo M, Gaudino G, Miraglia del Giudice E, et al. Pediatric obesity: prevention is better than care. Italian Journal of Pediatrics [Internet]. 2020 Jul 24 [cited 2023 Jul 15];46(1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-020-00868-7

[Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 1 April 2016. United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025)]. [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 [cited 2023 Jul 15]. 3 p. 70/259. Russian. Available from: http://cawater-info.net/pdf/n1609308.pdf

Baker P, Hawkes C, Wingrove K, Demaio AR, Parkhurst J, et al. What drives political commitment for nutrition? A review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition. BMJ Global Health [Internet]. 2018 Feb [cited 2023 Jul 15];3(1):e000485. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000485

Breda J, Castro LS, Whiting S, Williams J, Jewell J, Engesveen K, et al. Towards better nutrition in Europe: Evaluating progress and defining future directions. Food Policy [Internet]. 2020 Oct [cited 2023 Jun 28];96:101887. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101887

Use of nutrient profile models for nutrition and health policies: meeting report on the use of nutrient profile models in the WHO European Region, September 2021 [Internet]. Copenhagen: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. 78 p. 6201-45966-66383. WHO/EURO:2022. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/363379

Nutrition labelling: policy brief [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/355295

Reformulation of food and beverage products for healthier diets: policy brief [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. 21 p. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/355755

REPLACE trans fat: an action package to eliminate industrially produced transfatty acids [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2019 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. 7 p. WHO/NMH/NHD/18.4. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240021105

Countdown to 2023: WHO report on global transfat elimination 2022 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2023 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. 62 p. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240067233

WHO global report on sodium intake reduction [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2023 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. 99 p. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240069985

He FJ, Brown M, Tan M, MacGregor GA. Reducing population salt intake –An update on latest evidence and global action. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension [Internet]. 2019 Aug 26 [cited 2023 Jul 12];21(10):1596-601. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.13664

Smyrnov IP, editor. [Principles of healthy nutrition: a guide to improving the quality of work]. Kyiv: CINDI- Ukraina; 2001. 29 p. Ukrainian.

[On the approval of the Concept of improving the food supply and quality of nutrition of the population. Order Kabinet of the Ministers of Ukraine dated 2004 May 26, No. 332-r: as of 2020 Sept 26]. [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jun 01]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/332-2004-р#Text

Serdiuk A, Gulich M, Polka N. [The prevention of non-infectious diseases related to lifestyle, nutrition and physical activity is an important direction of the national strategy of health protection of the population of Ukraine]. Zhurnal Akademii medychnykh nauk Ukrainy. 2010;16(2):299-307. Ukrainian.

Brych V, Bilak-Lukianchuk V, Slabkyi H, Hut-sol I, Potokii N, editors. [Healthy nutrition: a collection of materials for health care workers kharchuvannia] [Internet]. Uzhhorod: FOP Sabov A.M; 2020. 64 p. Ukrainian. Available from: https://dspace.uzhnu.edu.ua/jspui/bitstream/lib/29992/1/інформ.Харч.%20збірник%20нові%20поля.pdf

[Pro On the approval of the Norms of physiological needs of the population of Ukraine in basic nutrients and energy. Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated 2017 Sept 3, No. 1073]. [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jun 1]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z1206-17#Text

[Pro On the approval of the National Action Plan for non-communicable diseases to achieve the global goals of sustainable development. Order Cabinet of the Ministers of Ukraine dated 2018 Jul 26, No. 530]. [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jun 1]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/530-2018-р#Text

[On the approval of norms and the Procedure for the organization of meals in educational institutions and children's health and recreation institutions. Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Ministers of Ukraine dated 2021 Mar 24 No. 305: as of 2021 Sept 1]. [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2023 Jun 1]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/305-2021-п#Text

[On the National Strategy for the Development of a Safe and Healthy Educational Environment in a New Ukrainian School. Decree of the President of Ukraine dated 2020 May 25, No. 195/2020]. [Internet], 2020 [cited 2023 Jun 1]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/195/2020#Text

[On the approval of the Sanitary Regulations for general secondary education institutions. Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated 2020 Sept 25 No. 2205: as of 2022 Sept 9]. [Internet], 2020 [cited 2023 Jun 1]. Ukrainian. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z1111-20#Text

[Information bulletin Ukraine. Food habits of adults aged 18-69 years. Key findings from the STEPS study]. [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. 4 p. Ukrainian. Available from: https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/librariesprovider2/ukraine/ukraine-factsheet-dietary-habits-of-adults-aged-18-69-years-highlights-from-steps-ukr.pdf?sfvrsn=23409983_7&download=true

Serdyuk AM, Gulich MP, Petrenko OD, Lyubarskaya LS, Koblyanskaya AV. The awareness and con-sciousness of young students about the threat of risk factors of development of non-infectious diseases – modern status of the problem. Medicni perspektivi [Internet]. 2019 Apr 2 [cited 2023 Jun 28];24(1):4-14. doi: https://doi.org/10.26641/2307-0404.2019.1.162168

Gulich MP, Petrenko OD, Liubarska LS. Competences acquired at school age and their role in formation of food behavior in young people. Environment & Health [Internet]. 2021 Jun [cited 2023 Jun 28];99(2):22-7. doi: https://doi.org/10.32402/dovkil2021.02.022

[Monitoring the implementation of obligations to combat non-communicable diseases in Europe as of 2021]. [Internet]. Kopenhahen: Evropeiskoe rehyonalnoe biuro VOZ; 2021 [cited 2023 Jun 28]. 64 p. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/350461/WHO-EURO-2021-4479-44242-62495-rus.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Branca F, Lartey A, Oenema S, Aguayo V, Stordalen GA, Richardson R, et al. Transforming the food system to fight non-communicable diseases. BMJ [Internet]. 2019 Jan 28 [cited 2023 Jun 28]:l296. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l296

Bongaarts J. FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHOThe State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020. Transforming food systems for affordable healthy dietsFAO, 2020, 320 p. Population and Development Review [Internet]. 2021Jun.1;47(2):558-. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/padr.12418

Baker P, Machado P, Santos T, Sievert K, Backholer K, Hadjikakou M, et al. Ultra‐processed foods and the nutrition transition: Global, regional and national trends, food systems transforma¬tions and political economy drivers. Obesity Reviews [Internet]. 2020 Aug 6 [cited 2023 Jul 15];21(12). doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13126

Yu E, Malik VS, Hu FB. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention by Diet Modification. Journal of the American College of Cardiology [Internet]. 2018 Aug [cited 2023 Jul 15];72(8):914-26. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.02.085

UN-Nutrition Strategy 2022–2030. One UN for nutrition [Internet]. Rome, Italy: UN-Nutrition; 2022 [cited 2023 Jul 15]. 22 p. Available from: https://www.unnutrition.org/sites/default/files/2023-03/UN-Nutrition-Strategy-2022-2030_WEB_28Oct2022_EN.pdf

Published

2023-09-29

How to Cite

1.
Gulich M, Petrenko O. Healthy nutrition as a disease prevention factor: WHO Policy and National Experience (to mark the 75th anniversary of WHO in Ukraine). Med. perspekt. [Internet]. 2023Sep.29 [cited 2024Apr.15];28(3):152-6. Available from: https://journals.uran.ua/index.php/2307-0404/article/view/289218

Issue

Section

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE