The impact of urban air pollution on human health

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26641/2307-0404.2023.3.289221

Keywords:

urbanization, pathological condition, atmosphere, total mortality, industry

Abstract

Atmospheric air can be polluted as a result of the ingress of various chemicals into it, which have a harmful effect on human health, causing an exacerbation of cardiovascular, airborne diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the endocrine system, and exceeding the norms of dust content in the air leads to an increase in incidence of allergies and bronchial asthma. The relevance of the subject under study lies in the investigation of the sources of air pollution, as they lead to an increase in the degree of morbidity and mortality among the population. This, in turn, requires a radical change in the way people live, as well as the adoption of specific measures to ensure the reduction of air pollution. In this regard, the objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the ecological and hygienic conditions of atmospheric air and evaluate its impact on human health due to pollution. The study incorporated empirical research methods such as empirical description and comparison to analyze emissions of pollutants, assess population morbidity rates, and conduct correlation and regression analyses. Official data from the State Committee of Uzbekistan on Statistics and scientific papers were utilized, alongside statistical analysis techniques and logical reasoning to investigate atmospheric air pollution and its impact on public health. The study analysed the indicators of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere in the Republic of Uzbekistan as a whole and by regions. Furthermore, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the general morbidity of the population of the Republic of Uzbekistan and indicators of the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, based on which a correlation and regression analysis was performed. In addition, the morbidity rates of the population with diseases of the respiratory system and eye diseases throughout the Sirdaryo Region were analysed.  The study revealed that Uzbekistan experiences high levels of environmental pollution, with a direct correlation found between atmospheric pollutants and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory organ issues, and eye conditions. To protect the atmosphere, reducing pollutant emissions and implementing sustainable development principles, such as industrial modernization and the use of alternative energy sources, are necessary. The results highlight the importance of identifying pollutant types, their properties, and release conditions for effective pollution assessment. The practical significance of this study is to optimize the data of environmental monitoring of urban air pollution in the Republic of Uzbekistan, where in general there is a high level of pollutants in the atmosphere, which affects the health of the population.

References

Liu H, Huang B, Zhan Q, Gao S, Li R, Fan Z. The influence of urban form on surface urban heat island and its planning implications: Evidence from 1288 urban clusters in China. Sustain Cities Soc. 2021;71:102987. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.102987

Roxon J, Ulm FJ, Pellenq RM. Urban heat island impact on state residential energy cost and CO2 emissions in the United States. Urban Climate. 2020;31:100546. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2019.100546

Li X, Stringer LC, Dallimer M. The spatial and temporal characteristics of urban heat island intensity: Implications for East Africa’s urban development. Cli-mate. 2021;9(4):51. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9040051

Barwise Y, Kumar P. Designing vegetation barriers for urban air pollution abatement: A practical review for appropriate plant species selection. NPJ Clim Atmos Sci. 2020;3:12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-020-0115-3

Yakhshieva ZZ, Ahmadjonova YT, Ahmadjonova UT. Impact of vehicle emissions on the environment and human health. Science and Education Scientific Journal. 2021;2(6):119-23.

Adam MG, Tran PT, Balasubramanian R. Air quazlity changes in cities during the COVID-19 lockdown: A critical review. Atmos Res. 2021;264:105823. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105823

Iravani H, Rao V. The effects of new urbanism on public health. J Urban Des. 2020;25(2):218-35. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2018.1554997

Degirmenci K, Desouza KC, Fieuw W, Wat-son RT, Yigitcanlar T. Understanding policy and techno-logy res¬ponses in mitigating urban heat islands: A literature review and directions for future research. Sustain Cities Soc. 2021;70:102873. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.102873

Jacobs L, Emmerechts J, Hoylaerts MF, Mat-hieu C, Hoet PH, Nemery B, et al. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL. PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16200. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016200

Brook RD, Bard RL, Burnett RT, Shin HH, Vet-te A, Croghan C, et al. Differences in blood pressure and vascular responses associated with ambient fine particulate matter exposures measured at the personal versus community level. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68(3):224-30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2009.053991

Lipsett MJ, Ostro BD, Reynolds P, Goldberg D, Hertz A, Jerrett M, et al. Long-term exposure to air pol-lution and cardiorespiratory disease in the California teachers study cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(7):828-35. doi: https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201012-2082OC

Zhang P, Dong G, Sun B, Zhang L, Chen X, Ma NY, et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality due to cardiorespiratory disease and cerebrovascular disease in Shenyang, China. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20827. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020827

De Paula Santos U, Braga ALF, Giorgi DMA, Pe-reira LAA, Grupi CJ, Lin CA, et al. Effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability: A panel study of 78 vehicular traffic controllers in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Eur Heart J. 2005;26(2):193-200. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehi035

World Health Organization. 2021 [Internet]. [cited 2023 Apr 20]. Available from: https://www.who.int/

United Nations Environment Programme [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Apr 20]. Available from: https://www.unep.org/interactive/air-pollutionnote/?gclid=CjwKCAiAheacBhB8EiwAItVO28FdQ8FyDFWCxALLulpPB6gu9M2F8y2qqqi7vqeiNPRTTAmcml4UqhoCWpEQAvD_BwE

State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2023 Apr 20]. Available from: https://ru.knoema.com/atlas/sources/STAT-UZThe

Dong R, Li S, Zhang Y, Tan X, Fu X. Analysis of urban environmental problems based on big data from the urban municipal supervision and management information system. Ecol Indic. 2018;94:52-69. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.09.020

Ulpiani G. On the linkage between urban heat island and urban pollution island: Three-decade literature review towards a conceptual framework. Sci Total Environ. 2021;751:141727. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141727

Czernych R, Badyda AJ, Kozera G, Zagożdżon P. Assessment of Low-Level Air Pollution and Cardio-vascular Incidence in Gdansk, Poland: Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis. J Clin Med. 2023;12(6):2206. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12062206

Wang F, Chen T, Chang Q, Kao YW, Li J, Chen M, et al. Respiratory diseases are positively associated with PM2.5 concentrations in different areas of Taiwan. PloS One. 2021;16(4):e0249694. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249694

Yujing G, Qian Z, Kin L, Yingqin Z, Shubin W, Zhang W. The impact of urban transportation infrastructure on air quality. Sustainability. 2020;12:5626. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145626

Rapa M, Gobbi L, Ruggieri R. Environmental and economic sustainability of electric vehicles: Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing evaluation of electricity sources. Energies. 2020;13:6292. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236292

Gehring U, Wijga AH, Koppelman GH, Vonk JM, Smit HA, Brunekreef B. Air pollution and the develop-ment of asthma from birth until young adulthood. Eur Respir J. 2020;56(1):2000147. doi: https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00147-2020

Holst GJ, Pedersen CB, Thygesen M, Brandt J, Geels C, Bonlokke JH, et al. Air pollution and family related determinants of asthma onset and persistent whee¬zing in children: Nationwide case-control study. BMJ. 2020;370:m2791. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2791

Lizogub VG, Kramarova VN, Polonska LN, Ka-minska TM, Melnychuk IO, Tyrayska YV. Dietary correction of hyperinsulinemia and hemostasis parameters in overweight arterial hypertension patients. World of Medicine and Biology. 2020;73(3):65-69. doi: https://doi.org/10.26724/2079-8334-2020-3-73-65-69

Wrobel A, Zapala L, Kluz T, Rogowski A, Mi-siek M, Juszczak K, et al. The Potential of Asiatic Acid in the Reversion of Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis in Rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22(11):5853. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115853

Tyravska Y, Savchenko O, Lizogub V, Raksha N, Savchuk O. Blood Plasma Serotonin and von Willebrand Factor as Biomarkers of Unstable Angina Progression Toward Myocardial Infarction. Galician Medical Journal. 2021;28(1):202112. doi: https://doi.org/10.21802/gmj.2021.1.2

Downloads

Published

2023-09-29

How to Cite

1.
Komilova N, Egamkulov K, Hamroyev M, Khalilova K, Zaynutdinova D. The impact of urban air pollution on human health. Med. perspekt. [Internet]. 2023Sep.29 [cited 2024Mar.3];28(3):170-9. Available from: https://journals.uran.ua/index.php/2307-0404/article/view/289221

Issue

Section

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE