Marmara Sea waters with the Mediterranean origin in the formation of the salinity and dynamics fields in the Black Sea
Keywords:annual average, maximum, minimum salinity, intrusions, domes, foci, mixing of waters, circulation
The peculiarities of the bottom of the central basin of the Black Sea are specified, and four depression zones with maximum depths of 2170, 2210, 2171 and 2140 m were allocated for the first time, as well as the positions of the focuses of maximum salinity in the Black Sea water column in a long-term climatic plan. The presence of three foci of maximum salinity in the water column, which are connected with the bottom depressions in the central Black Sea basin, and two similar foci which are located in the coastal areas of the sea (SW ― the Bosphorus and SE ― the Batumi-Trabzon area), was determined with the field of factual average annual salinity. In the fields of salinity extremes, there are 4 foci of maximum salinity in the central basin of the sea and two ones in the SW and SE sea coastal areas. The nature of their occurrence and permanent existence was explained by the entry of highly salted Marmara Sea waters of Mediterranean origin into the bottom layers of the Black Sea and their further intrusion from the depths to the surface because there are no other sources of high-saline waters. The up-welling vertical movements that occur during the intrusion of water from the depths into the overlying layers are interacted with the Coriolis force and are led to the formation of horizontal cyclonic circulation in high salinity cupolas. This process develops and exists in the entire water column.
The differences are established in the vertical distribution of average and extreme salinity. Well-defined disturbances caused by water mixing processes are traced in the curves of salinity extremes: in the field of minimal salinity they are located at horizons from 300 to 1200 m with the formation of even a homogeneous layer of water at depths of 500―600 m; in the field of maximum salinity, a abrupt decrease in the gradient at the horizon of 400―500 m, as well as the formation of a homogeneous layer of water at depths of 800―1000 m.
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