Climatic projections of heating season in Ukraine up to the middle of the 21st century


  • S. V. Krakovska Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, Ukraine
  • L. V. Palamarchuk Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, Ukraine
  • T. M. Shpytal Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, Ukraine



ensemble of regional climate models, verification of modeling data, specialized climatic indicators, heating period mean temperature, heating period duration, heating degree days


The paper presents projections for the balanced scenario A1B of specialized climatic indicators of the heating period for the territory of Ukraine for decades until the middle of the 21st century. Prediction of mean temperature, duration and heating degree-days are based on calculations of the previously formed and adapted to Ukraine ensemble of 10 regional climate models from the European project ENSEMBLES. The main and specialized climatic indicators calculated on all nodes of a regular grid of 25×25 km were verified by E-Obs data for the period 2001―2010. A negligible bias in the heating period mean temperature (in average less than 0.01°C) and an acceptable bias in duration (with a mean value of less than 6,4 days or <4 %) were found in the verification that resulted in obtaining an average bias in heating degree-days by about 4 %. Forecasting of specialized indicators of the heating season for future periods was performed with corresponding bias corrections. The spatial and temporal changes of heating period indices for the decades to the middle of the 21st century have been analyzed and averaging values for administrative units of Ukraine have been calculated. Obtained insignificant, within the limits of 0―0,2 °С, increase of the mean heating period temperature for most of the country in the modern decade of 2011―2020 in relation to the base period of 2001―2010, reducing the heating period duration by an average of 3 days and reducing values of heating degree-days by 2―3 %. By the middle of the 21st century the mean heating period temperature will increase significantly with maximum values of 1,5 °С in the northeastern, central and eastern parts of the country, and the least increasing of 0,8 °С to the south, southwest and the Crimea. The heating period duration will be reduced by 15―18 days in average, with a maximum of 20 days to the south. The values of heating degree-days will decrease in most areas by 12―16 %, with maximum by 20 % in the Crimea, and the minimum reduction by 9―12 % in the Carpathians. Results obtained in the study may be used, primarily, for the calculation of heating costs and other needs of the energy sector and other national economy sectors for the overall development of infrastructure and other needs of any settlement in the territory of Ukraine.


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How to Cite

Krakovska, S. V., Palamarchuk, L. V., & Shpytal, T. M. (2019). Climatic projections of heating season in Ukraine up to the middle of the 21st century. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 41(6), 144–164.