Multiparameter approach in the deep geoelectrics
Keywords:deep geoelectrics, response function, Earth electrical conductivity
The main provisions of geoelectrics are described, the importance of taking into account the ambiguity of its inverse problem is emphasized. Three main methods of deep geoelectrics which use natural fields of ionospheric-magnetospheric origin are considered: geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS), magnetotelluric sounding (MTS), and magnetovariational profiling (MVP). The response functions of each method are described. Each response function carries its own specific information about some parameters of the studied object and is characterized by the degree of reliability of the information about the object extracted from it. For example, the most reliable information about electrical conductivity anomalies (if any in the study area) is contained in the MVP response functions. The horizontal tensor of the anomalous field contains information about the electrical conductivity under the observation point, and the tipper (induction vector) contains information from the surrounding areas. In general, MVP information is less susceptible to distortions than MTS information and deserves more trust. Artificial field sources in deep geoelectrics are rarely used due to their high cost. Since 1970, two powerful sources created for other purposes arised on the Kola Peninsula and were used for deep sounding. In the center of these studies found themself young talented geologist-geophysicist and organizer of major projects AbdulkhaiAzimovichZhamaletdinov. The «Khibiny» project with an MHD generator and an ultra-deep well as one of the objects of the study, the «Zeus» low-frequency emitter, the signals of which were recorded in China at a distance of 7000 km, and a number of projects conceived and organized by Zhamaletdinov and executed under his leadership: «Volgograd-Donbass» (1979, 1986), experiments «PHOENIX» (2007, 2009, 2014, 2019) and others. At the same time, methods of interpretation were developed for sounding with artificial EM sources and new response functions were obtained which make it possible to «see» the object of research in a new way. This experience must be preserved, generalized, improved and used, for example as follows. In the area of modern synchronous multipoint MTS-MVP survey, a controlled source composed of two grounded lines emits strong current (harmonics at fixed frequencies and/or pulses) which signal will be recorded by survey instruments during night-time sessions.
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