Forensic classification of battle axes




ax, battle axe, forensic classification, iron, hatchet, blade


The essence of the definition of "battle axe" has been investigated. It is determined, that it is an axe, intended for use as a cutting, chopping-stabbing, chopping-slicing and chopping-stabbing-cutting cold weapon, and consists of an iron (percussive part with a blade) and a hatchet (handle). The history of the development of battle axes - from stone to modern ones - has been studied. The material for making axes has been determined - stone, metal and other materials. For foot soldiers, a battle ax was often the main weapon, for horsemen - an auxiliary one. Battle axes were used mainly for close combat. Some types of axes were used for throwing. Axes were also widely used as ceremonial weapons. The battle ax has spread all over the world, different modifications of it have appeared in different regions. The reasons for the spread of the battle ax were the relative cheapness compared to the sword and the personal preferences of the owner. The purpose of the study was the formation of a forensic battle axes classification. The materials of the research were literary sources, scientific works and expert conclusions on the studied issues. On the basis of the conducted research, a forensic classification of battle axes is proposed.

The main characteristics of battle axes include their type; method of action; application method; iron manufacturing technology; number of blades; blade shape; blade width; the presence of additional striking elements; iron material; the shape (cross-section) of the eyelet; the method of attaching the iron to the ax; ax length; ax shape; ax material; the way of holding (grasping) the ax; availability of additional accessories, tuning; the method of making an ax; time of manufacture; construction decoration

Author Biographies

Vitalii Nikitiuk, National Scientific Center «Hon. Prof. M. S. Bokarius Forensic Science Institute» of Ministry of Justice of Ukraine

Head of Sector

Ihor Yaroshenko, National Scientific Center «Hon. Prof. M. S. Bokarius Forensic Science Institute» of Ministry of Justice of Ukraine

Head of Laboratory

Forensic Research Laboratory


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How to Cite

Nikitiuk, V., & Yaroshenko, I. (2022). Forensic classification of battle axes. ScienceRise: Juridical Science, (3(21), 32–37.



Juridical Science