Authorship identification means obtaining assurances that each author of the manuscript's group of authors has contributed to the research, in a certain part of it. In case of any doubts on the part of the editorial, which may be based, in particular, on the discrepancy between the content of the manuscript and the competence of one of the authors in terms of the field of sciences, the field of scientific interests, other publications of the given author, the editorial board requires the group of authors to distribute the contribution to the conduct of research and preparation of the manuscript, with a separate emphasis on the contribution of the author in respect of whom doubts arose. The guarantees of authorship are secured by the License Agreement between the Licensor (author) and the Licensee (Publisher).
A correspondent author should be singled out from the composition of the group of authors, who acts on behalf of the entire group of authors on any issues of interaction with the editorial board. He/she is responsible for ensuring that all agreements regarding the rules of the Publisher for the transformation of the manuscript into an article and its subsequent publication are reached, as well as at the stage after the publication of the article, if such a need arises. If there is a need, justified on the part of the authors, to remove or add co-authors, or to change the order of authors, such changes after the submission of the manuscript are possible only with the approval of each author.
The authorship identification process also presupposes the prevention of ghost authors, guest authors and gift authors from appearing in the group of authors.
Large Language Models (LLM), such as ChatGPT, do not meet the criteria of authorship, as they do not have the appropriate contribution to be considered an author, and their ownership to the authorship cannot be guaranteed by signing the License Agreement. If LLM was used in the study, this should be properly indicated in the Materials and Methods section. The appropriateness of using the LLM will be further evaluated by the editor and specialists at the stage of double-blind peer review.
As regards the implementation of the rules for working with a manuscript, this procedure is standard for starting work with a manuscript.
In the event of situations not described above and probably not foreseen in advance, in terms of the reality of authorship in this manuscript, the editors take actions based on the recommendations of COPE, a member of which is the publisher of PC TECHNOLOGY CENTER, in particular "How to recognise potential authorship problems".