Problems of magnetostratigraphy of Pleistocene loess-soil deposits of the South of Ukraine


  • V.G. Bakhmutov Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • D. V. Glavatskiy Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine



magnetostratigraphy, Matuyama-Brunhes boundary, palaeomagnetic method, Pleistocene, loess-soil sequence, Roxolany section


Main principles of magnetostratigraphy, paleomagnetic method of measurement and its applying in Quaternary stratigraphy have been set forth. Results of Matuyama-Brunhes (M/B) boundary detection in loess-soil sediments of Ukraine and other territories given in the previous studies are presented. Attention has been paid to contradictions in determination of M/B boundary position and episodes of inverse polarity within Brunhes chron according to the data of different authors. The situation is notably shown on Roxolany section in West Black Sea region as an example. One of the reasons there can be increase of magnetometric equipment precision and quality of measurements which exclude the bias effects nowadays. Another reason is the contradictions in stratigraphic partition of sections that are located even within the same loess province. We have got informative data that allow to predetermine M/B boundary position in Roxolany section at 46.6 m depth between Lubny and Martonosha soil horizons which conforms to modern point of view of Ukrainian stratigraphers and corresponds to previous investigations of Dolynske section (M/B boundary was found at the level of Martonosha horizon). Further complex paleomagnetic studies of Pleistocene sections of Ukraine will help to revise and correlate still conflicting magnetostratigraphic charts.


Bakhmutov V. G., Hlavatskyi D. V., 2014. New data about Matuyama—Brunhes boundary in Roxolany section. Geologicheskiy zhurnal (2), 73—84 (in Russian).

Bakhmutov V. G., Mokryak I. N., Skarboviychuk T. V., Yakukhno V. N., 2005. Results of paleomagnetic study of Danube terrace section and problems of Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy of Western Black Sea region. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal 27(6), 980—991 (in Russian).

Bolshakov V. A., 2007. Are geomagnetic episods reliable for geological sediments correlation? Fizika Zemli (9), 68—78 (in Russian).

Bolshakov V. A., 1996. Applying of magnetic methods in young sediments. Moscow: GEOS, 192 p. (in Russian).

Bolshakov V. A., 1999. About depth of paleomagnetic record fixation and climate—stratigraphic position of Matuyama—Brunhes inversion in deep-sea sediments. Fizika Zemli (6), 93—96 (in Russian).

Bolshakov V. A., 2004. Determination of climate-stratigraphical position of Matuyama—Brunhes inversion in loess formation sediments as a complex problem of Earth sciences. Fizika Zemli (12), 58—76 (in Russian).

Bolshakov V. A., 1995. Paleomagnetic record of geomagnetic episodes and secondary magnetization of rocks. Fizika Zemli (1), 66—70 (in Russian).

Veklich M. F., Sirenko N. A., Matviishina Zh. N., 1984. Paleographic phases and detail stratigraphic partition of Pleistocene of Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 32 p. (in Russian).

Hozhyk P., 2013. Study questions of Roxolany section. Loess-covering of the North Black Sea Region. Lublin: KARTPOL s.c. Lublin, P. 17—33 (in Ukrainian).

Gurariy G. Z., Petrova G. N., Pospelova G. A., 1983. Thin structure of geomagnetic field. Modern status of investigation in sphere of geomagnetism. Moscow: Nauka, P. 42—62 (in Russian).

Kravchinskiy V. A., Pek Dzh., Sakai Kh., 1998. Magnetostratigraphic scale of late Cenozoic of Central Asia according to data of deep-sea drilling in Baykal. Global changes of the natural environment. Novosibirsk: Research Center Branch of the RAS, P. 73—77 (in Russian).

Linkova T. I., 1984. Paleomagnetism of Upper Cenozoic sediments of world Ocean. Moscow: Nauka, 130 p. (in Russian).

Matasova G. G., 2006. Late Pleistocene magnetism of loess-soil sediments of Siberia subareal formation: Diss. Dr. Geol. and Min. Sci. Novosibirsk, 386 p. (in Russian).

Petrova G. N., Nechaeva T. B., Pospelova G. A., 1992. Characteristic changes in the geomagnetic field in the past. Moscow: Nauka, 175 p. (in Russian).

Pilipenko O. V., Sharonova Z. V., Trubikhin V. M., Didenko A. N., 2005. Thin structure and evolution geomagnetic field 75—100 thousand y. for example loess-soil section Roxolany (Ukraine). Fizika Zemli (1), 66—73 (in Russian) .

Pospelova G. A., 2004. Geomagnetic episodes. Short history and current status of geomagnetic investigation in Institute of Earth’s physics RAN. Moscow: Publ. IPE RAS, 44—55 (in Russian).

Treatyak A. N., 1983. Natural remnant magnetization and problem of sediments paleomagnetic stratification. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 256 p. (in Russian).

Tretyak A. N. Vigilyanskaya L. I., 1994. Magnetostratigraphic scale of Pleistocene of Ukraine. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal 16(2), 3—14 (in Russian).

Tretyak A. N., Vigilyanskaya L. I., Makarenko V. N., Dudkin V. P., 1989. Thin structure of geomagnetic field in Late Cenozoic. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 156 p. (in Russian).

Tretyak A. N., Shevchenko A. I., Dudkin V. P., Vigilyanskaya L. I., 1987. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy of key Late Cenozoic sections of the south of Ukraine. Working paper 87-46. Kiev, Institute of geological sciences of AS USSR, 50 p. (in Russian).

Sharonova Z. V., Pilipenko O. V., Trubikhin V. M., Didenko A. N., Feyn A. G., 2004. Restoration of geomagnetic field according to paleomagnetic records in loess—soil section Roxolany (Dnestr river, Ukraine) for last 75 000 years. Fizika Zemli (1), 4—13 (in Russian).

Shkatova V. K., 1998. Magnetostratigraphic scale of Quarter: Theses of reports All-Russian Conference “Main results in study of Quaternary period and main investigation directions in XXI century”, St. Petersburg: VSEGEI Publ., P. 58—59 (in Russian).

Bassion F. C., Labeyrie L. D., Vincent E., 1994. The astronomical theory of climate and the age of the Brunhes—Matuyama magnetic reversal. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 12, 91—108.

Bonhommet N., Zahringer J., 1969. Paleomagnetism and potassium-argon age determinations of the Laschamp geomagnetic polarity event. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 6, 43—46.

Champion D., Lanphere M., Kuntz M., 1988. Evidence for a new geomagnetic reversal from lava flows in Idaho: discussion of short polarity reversals in the Brunhes and Late Matuyamapolarity chrons. J. Geophys. Res. 93(B10), 11667—11680.

Denham C. E., Cox A., 1971. Evidence that the LAschamp polarity event did not occur 13300—30400 years ago. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 13, 181—190.

Dodonov A. E., Zhou L. P., Markova A. K., Tchepalyga A. L., Trubikhin V. M., Aleksandrovski A. L., Simakova A. N., 2006. Middle-Upper Pleistocene bio-climatic and magnetic recordsof the northern Black Sea coastal area. Quat. Int. 149, 44—54.

Du Pasquier J., 1999. Environmental paleomagnetic study of the loess/paleosol sequence from Roxolany (Ukraine). Diploma Thesis. Zürich. 59 p.

Evans M., Heller F., 2001. Magnetism of loess/palaeosoil sequences: recent development. Earth Sci. Rev. 54, 129—144.

Fang X. M., Li J. J., Van der Voo R., MacNiocaill C., Dai R. X., Kemp R. A., Derbyshire E., Cao J. X., Wang J. M., Wang G., 1997. A record of the Blake event during the last interglacial paleosol in the western Loess Plateau of China. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 146, 73— 82.

Fink J., Kukla G. J., 1977. Pleistocene climate in central Europe: at least 17 interglacial after the Olduvai event. Quat. Res. 7, 363—371.

Forster T., Heller F., 1994. Paleomagnetism of loess deposits from the Tajik depression (central Asia). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 128, 501—512.

Forster T., Heller F., Evans M. E., Havlicek P., 1996. Loess in the Czech Republic: magnetic properties and paleoclimate. Stud. Geophys. Geodyn. 40, 243—261.

Gendler T. S., Heller F., Tsatskin A., Spassov S., Du Pasquier J., Faustov S. S., 2006. Roxolany and Novaya Etuliya — key sections in the western Black Sea loess area: Magnetostratigraphy, rock magnetism, and paleopedology. Quat. Int. 152-153, 78—93.

Harrison C. G. A., 1974. The paleomagnetic record from deep-sea sediment cores. Earth Sci. Rev. 10, 1—36.

Harrison C. G. A. Ramirez E., 1975. Areal coverage of spurious reversals of the earth's magnetic field. J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 27, 139—151.

Hays J. D., Imbrie J., Shackleton N., 1976. Variation in the Earth’s orbit: Pacemaker of the ice ages. Science 194, 1121—1132.

Heller F., Liu T., 1984. Magnetism of Chinese loess deposites. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 77, 125—141.

Heller F., Liu T., 1982. Magnetostratigrafical dating of loess deposits in China. Nature 300, 431—433.

Hus J., Geeraerts R., Jordanova D., Evlogiev J., 1997. Magnetostratigraphy of loess-paleosol sequence in Viatovo, near Russe (Bulgaria). IAGA. Abstract Book. 65 p.

Jin C. S., Liu Q. S., 2010. Reliability of the natural remanent magnetization recorded in Chinese loess. J. Geophys. Res. 115, B04103.

Jin C. S., Liu Q. S., 2011. Revisiting the stratigraphic position of the Matuyama–Brunhes geomagnetic polarity boundary in Chinese loess. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 299, 309—317.

Liddicoat J., Coe R., 1979. Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion. J. Geophys. Res. 84, 261—271.

Knudsen M. F., Abrahamsen N., Riisager P., 2003. Paleomagnetic evidence from Cape Verde Islands basalts for fully reversed excursions in the Brunhes Chron. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 206, 199—214.

Kukla G. J., 1975. Loess stratigraphy of Central Europe. In: After the Australopithecines. Mouton, The Hague, P. 99—188.

Langereis C. G., Dekkers M. J., de Lange G. J., Paterne M., van Santvoort P. J. M., 1997. Magnetostratigraphy and astronomical calibration of the last 1.1 Myr from an eastern Mediterranean piston core and dating of short events in the Brunhes. Geophys. J. Int. 129, 75—94.

Larson E. E., Walker T. R., Patterson P. E., Hoblit R. P., Rosenbaum J. G., 1982. Paleomagnetism of the Moenkopi Formation, Colorado Plateaw: Basis for long-term model of acquisition of chemical remanent magnetism in red beds. J. Geophys. Res. 87(B2), 1081—1106.

Liu Q., Jin C., Hu P., Jiang Z., Ge K., Roberts A. P., 2015. Magnetostratigraphy of Chinese loess-paleosol sequences. Earth Sci. Rev. 150, 139—167.

Liu Q. S., Roberts A. P., Rohling E. J., Zhu R. X., Sun Y. B., 2008. Post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in and the location of the Matuyama—Brunhes geomagnetic reversal boundary in marine and Chinese loess sequences. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 275, 102—110.

Liu T. S., 1985. Loess and the Environment. Beijing: China Ocean Press, 251 p.

Liu X., Liu T., Shaw J., Heller F., Xu T., Yuan B., 1991. Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic studies of Chinese loess. Loess, Environment and Global Change (the series of the XIII INQUA Congress). Beijing: Science Press, P. 61—81.

Lovlie R., 1989. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy: a correlation method. Quat. Int. 1, 129—149.

Lund S. P., Schwartz M., Keigwin L., Johnson T., 2005. Highresolution records of the Laschamp geomagnetic field excursion. J. Geophys. Res. 110, B04101.

Lund S. P., Williams T., Acton G., Clement B., Okada M., 2001. Brunhes Epoch magnetic field excursions recorded in ODP Leg 172 sediments. In: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Project. Scientific Results. 172.

Merrill R. T., McElhinny M. W., McFadden P. L., 1996. The magnetic field of the Earth: paleomagnetism, the Core and the Deep Mantly. USA: Academic press, 531 p.

Nawrocki J., Bakhmutov V., Bogucki A., Dolecki L., 1999. The Paleo- and Petromagnetic record in the Polish and Ukrainian Loess-Paleosol Sequences. Phys. Chem. Earth 24(9), 773—777.

Nawrocki J., Bogucki A., Lanczont M., Nowaczek N. R., 2002. The Matuyama—Brunhes boundary and the nature of magnetic remanence acquisition in the loess-palaeosol sequence from the western part of the East European loess province. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 188, 39—50.

Nowaczyk N. R., Antonow M., 1997. High-resolution magnetostratigraphy of four sediment cores from the Greenland Sea. I. Identification of the Mono Lake excursion, Laschamp and Biwa I/Jamaica geomagnetic polarity events. Geophys. J. Int. 131, 310—324.

Nowaczyk N. R., Frederichs T. W, Eisenhauer A., Gard G., 1994. Magnetostratigraphic data from late Quaternary sediments from the Yermak Plateau, Arctic Ocean: evidence for four geomagnetic polarity events within the last 170 Ky of the Brunhes Chron. Geophys. J. Int. 117, 453—471.

Opdyke N. D., Channell J. E. T., 1996. Magnetic stratigraphy. London: Acad. Press, 341 p.

Pecsi M., Schweitzer F., Balogh J., Balogh M., Havas J., Heller F., 1995. A new loess-paleosol lithostratigraphical sequence at Paks (Hungary). Loess in Form 3, 63—78.

Petrova G. N., Pospelova G. A., 1990. Excursions of the magnetic field during the Brunhes chron. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 63, 135—143.

Zhu R. X., Laj C., Mazaud A., 1994. The Matuyama— Brunhes and Upper Jaramillo transitions recorded in a loess section at Weinan, north-central China. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 125, 143—158.

Rolph T. C., Shaw J., Derbyshire E., Wang J. T., 1989. A detailed geomagnetic record from Chinese loess. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 56, 151—164.

Sartori M., 2000. The Quaternary climate in loess sediments: Evidence from rock and mineral magnetic and geochemical analysis. Doctor of Natural Sciences Thesis, Zürich, 231 p.

Shackleton N., Berger A., Peltier W., 1990. An alternative astronomical calibration of the Lower Pleistocene time scale based on ODP Site 677. Trans. Roy Soc. Edinburgh: Earth Sci. 81, 251—261.

Shackleton N., Opdyke N., 1973. Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pasific core V28-238: Oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 year and 106 year scale. Quat. Res. 3, 39—55.

Smith J. D., Foster J., 1969. Geomagnetic reversal in Brunhes normal polarity epoch. Science 163, 565—567.

Spassov S., Heller F., Evance M., Yue L. P., Ding Z. L., 2001. The Matuyama/Brunhes Geomagnetic polarity transition at Lingtai and Baoji, Chinese Loess Plateau. Phys. Chem. Earth 26, 899—904.

Sun Y. B., Qiang X. K., Liu Q. S., Bloemendal J., Wang X. L., 2013. Timing and lock-in effect of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion in Chinese Loess. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, 4952—4961.

Tauxe L., Herbert T., Shackleton N. J., Kok Y. S., 1996. Astronomical calibration of the Matuyama Brunhes Boundary: consequences for magnetic remanence acquisition in marine carbonates. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 140, 133—146.

Tsatskin A., Heller F., Gendler T. S., Virina E. I., Spassov S., Pasquier J. Du., Hus J., Hailwood E. A., Bagin V. I., Faustov S. S., 2001. A New Scheme of Terrestrial Paleoclimate Evolution During the Last 1.5 Ma in the Western Black Sea Region: Integration of Soil Studies and Loess Magmatism. Phys. Chem. Earth 26(11-12), 911—916.

Tsatskin A., Heller F., Hailwood E. A., Gendler T. S., Hus J., Montgomery P., Sartori M., Virina E. I., 1998. Pedosedimentary division, rock magnetism and chronology of the loess/palaeosol sequence at Roxolany (Ukraine). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 143, 111—133.

Verosub K. L., 1982. Geomagnetic excursions: a critical assessment of the evidence as recorded in sediments of the Brunhes Epoch. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A306(149a), 161—168.

Wang X., Lovlie R., Chen Y., Yang Z., Pei J., Tang L., 2014. The Matuyama—Brunhes polarity reversal in four Chinese loess records: high fidelity recording of geomagnetic field behavior or a less than reliable chronostratigraphic marker. Quat. Sci. Rev. 101, 61—76.

Wang X., Yang Z., Lovlie, Sun Z., Pei J., 2006. A magnetostratigraphic reassessment of correlation between Chinese loess and marine oxygen isotope records over the last 1.1 Ma. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 159, 109—117.

Xiong S. F., Ding Z. L., Liu T. S., 2001. Climatic implications of loess deposits from the Beijing region. J. Quat. Sci. 16, 575—582.

Zheng H. B., An Z. S., Shaw J., 1992. New contributions to Chinese Plio-Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 70, 146—153.

Zhu R. X., Zhang R., Deng C. L., Pan Y. X., Liu Q. S., Sun Y. B., 2007. Are Chinese loess deposits essentially continuous. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(17), L17306. doi:10.1029/2007GL030591.

Zhu R. X., Zhou L. P., Laj C., Mazaud A., Ding Z. L., 1994. The Blake geomagnetic polarity episode recorded in Chinese loess. Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 697—700.



How to Cite

Bakhmutov, V., & Glavatskiy, D. V. (2016). Problems of magnetostratigraphy of Pleistocene loess-soil deposits of the South of Ukraine. Geofizičeskij žurnal, 38(4), 59–74.