Tonalite-trondjemite-granodiorite formation of the Archaean. Special features of composition and conditions of formation, Ukrainian Shield as an example


  • O.V. Usenko Subbotin Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine



Tonalite-trondjemite-granodiorite formation (TTG) produces the main volume of acidic rocks of the continental crust. Similar rocks are never met later. Therefore the problems of their production are directly connected with the problem of the crust and mantle formation.

The structure of the Archean TTG formation of granite-gneiss area of the Bug megablock and granite-grrenstone area of the Middle Dnieper megablock (MDMB) has been considered. Similar and different features have been found. The analysis of these data resulted in a conclusion that within the MDMB, West Periazovian and Khashchevate-Zavalie block of the Middle Bug area the events of formation of the Archean granite-greenstone area were similar, however these three blocks of the Ukrainian Shield demonstrate different levels of erosion damage reflected in PT-conditions of metamorphic transformations.

The rocks of TTG formation are a part of complex structured stratum appeared as a result of impregnation (migmatization) by quartz-albite melt of the primary crust and/or of more ancient strata of predominantly basic composition. In the middle-lower crust a partial replacement of the primary crust occurred and in the upper one — the deposition of new portions of the melt on the earlier ones, piercement of granite masses and migmatization of volcanogenic stratum.  During the Archean these events happened repeatedly, that resulted in partial replacement of the primary crust with plagiogranites.

Modern notions have been considered on the processes of producing of TTG granite formation. It has been shown that according to thermal model distribution of temperatures in the crust does not cross the line of basalt water solidus. That is why the appearance of granite melts could not be the result of submergence to big depths (ultrametamorphism). Chronological and genetic relation with mantle melting, of which komatiites and spilites of green-stone structures were crystallized, assumed convective flows in the mantle. To explain the formation of tonalite and trondjemite melt a model of two-leveled crystallization differentiation of ultrabasic melt has been used. However appearance of primary basalt replacement in such a scale and assimilation of green-stone roots by granite melt are possible only in case of interaction of mantle fluids with the rocks of primary crust. An assumption has been made that the composition of some part of these fluids could be close to composition of granite (trondjemite). According to the author’s opinion such assumption confirms a hypothesis of V. Griffin and N. Pirson about formation of crystalline mantle on the border between the Archean and Proterozoic.


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How to Cite

Usenko, O. . (2021). Tonalite-trondjemite-granodiorite formation of the Archaean. Special features of composition and conditions of formation, Ukrainian Shield as an example. Geofizičeskij žurnal, 43(1), 38–68.