The seasonal changes in the position of the upper boundary of the Black Sea hydrogen sulfide zone due to the nature of the dynamic processes development

Authors

  • R.R. Belevich The State Institution «Hydroacoustic Branch of Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine», Ukraine
  • O.R. Andrianova The State Institution «Hydroacoustic Branch of Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine», Ukraine
  • M.I. Skipa The State Institution «Hydroacoustic Branch of Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine», Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.v44i1.253716

Keywords:

Black Sea, temperature, salinity, vertical distribution, extremes, hydrogen sulfide, divergence, convergence, seasonal variation

Abstract

The position and seasonal fluctuations of the depth of the maximum water salinity gradient in the Black Sea in the upper 150 m layer (halocline), which is interpreted as the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide layer in the sea, were estimated based on the analysis of climatic data of the vertical distribution of salinity for the period 1903—1982. Seasonal maps of the depth of this boundary in the water area of the sea were constructed, and extrema (axes of maximum and minimum) were identified. Features of dynamic processes in the Black Sea were estimated by the position of the axes of the convergence and divergence zones, which correspond to the values of the maximum and minimum in the field of the considered characteristic. Water temperature and salinity maps in isolines with extremum axes highlighted on them — the positions of the vergence zones axes were built at this depth in a similar way. Thus, ideas have been obtained where the position of the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide layer should be expected in a specific season and region.

For comparison with the current hydrophysical conditions in the Black Sea, the actual materials of individual surveys carried out three times in 2016, 2017, and 2019 during a warm period on a zonal section in the open sea were analyzed. The depth of the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone was 55, 56, and 54 m, respectively, while according to climatic data — 62 m. It may indicate ongoing changes due to climate warming.

References

Belevich, R.R., Andrianova, O.R., Popov, Yu.I., & Skipa, M.I. (2011). Features of the climatic circulation of the Black Sea waters according to the distribution of dynamic heights along the axis of the Black Sea divergence zone. Ukrainskiy gidrometeorolo-gicheskiy zhurnal, (8), 234—241 (in Russian).

Bogdanova, A.K. (1972). Seasonal and interannual fluctuations in water exchange through the Bosporus. In Biology of the Sea (is. 27, pp. 41—54). Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).

Boguslavsky, S.G., Sovga, E.E., & Kazakov, S.I. (2006). Influence of the salinity field on the position of the upper boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone in the Black Sea. Morskoy gidrofizicheskiy zhurnal, (1), 16—21 (in Russian).

Goryachkin, Yu.N. & Ivanov, V.A. (2006). Black Sea level: past, present and future. Sevastopol: Edition of the Marine Hydro-physical Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, 210 p. (in Russian).

Zubov, N.N. (1956). Fundamentals of the doctrine of the strains of the oceans. Moscow: Geografiz, 240 p. (in Russian).

Ivanov, V.A. & Belokopytov, V.N. (2011). Oceanography of the Black Sea. Sevastopol: Edition of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, 213 p. (in Russian).

Kravets, V.N. (2002). Long-term variability and assessment of the balance of hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea. Trudy UkrNIG-MI, (250), 354—363 (in Russian).

Polonskiy, A.B., & Popov, Yu.I. (2011). Conditions for the formation of waters of the cold intermediate layer of the Black Sea. Sevastopol: Edition of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, 52 p. (in Russian).

Ryabinin, A.I., & Kravets, V.N. (1989). The current state of the hydrogen sulfide zone of the Black Sea (1960—1986). Moskow: Gidrometeoizdat, 232 p. (in Russian).

Skopintsev, B.A. (1975). Formation of the modern chemical composition of the Black Sea waters. Leningrad: Gydrometeoizdat, 336 p. (in Russian).

Altman, E.N. (Ed.). (1987). Statistical characteristics of the thermohaline structure of the Black Sea waters. USSR State Commit-tee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control. State Oceanographic Institute. Sevastopol branch, 302 p. (in Russian).

Sukhovey, V.F. (1986). Seas of the World Ocean. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 287 p. (in Russian).

Titov, V.B. (2003). Influence of long-term variability of climatic conditions on the hydrological structure and interannual renewal of the cold intermediate layer in the Black Sea. Oceanologiya, 43(2), 176—184 (in Russian).

Falina, A., Sarafanov, A., Özsoy, E., & Turunçoğlu, U.U. (2017). Observed basin-wide propagation of Mediterranean water in the Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(4), 3141—3151. https://doi.org/10.1002/ 2017JC012729.

Jarosz, E., Teague, W.J., Book, J.W., & Besiktepe, S. (2011). Observed volume fluxes in the Bosphorus Strait. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(21), L21608. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049557.

Published

2022-04-03

How to Cite

Belevich, R. ., Andrianova, O., & Skipa, M. . (2022). The seasonal changes in the position of the upper boundary of the Black Sea hydrogen sulfide zone due to the nature of the dynamic processes development. Geofizičeskij žurnal, 44(1), 145–157. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.v44i1.253716

Issue

Section

Articles