Hydrocarbon system of the South Caspian Depression


  • N.P. Yusubov Institute of Oil-and-Gas of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan
  • T.N. Shikhmammadova SOCAR, Geophysics and Geology Department, Azerbaijan




the hydrocarbon generation source, tectonic faults (fractures), reflected wave seismic method, reservoirs, oil-and-gas fields, well logging data


Actuality. The hydrocarbon generation sources in the South Caspian Basin (SCB) are located at the depth of nine or more kilometers, where the organic-rich Maikop sediments occur. The main oil-and-gas fields here are found in reservoirs of the Productive Strata (Lower Pliocene), bedding at a depth of one or more kilometers. At the same time, the significant role at the process of hydrocarbons migration from the source of their generation to the reservoirs belongs to the tectonic faults (fractures). However, the results of the research according to the latest seismic data carried out in recent years are indicated the unavailability of the tectonic faults in the SCB, which connected the hydrocarbon generation sources with the reservoirs in the Productive Strata.

Target. The determination of the geological elements at the studied area that contributed the role of the hydrocarbon migration channels and connected generation source with reservoirs in the Productive Strata.

Objects. The hydrocarbon generation source, hydrocarbon migration channel, tectonic faults and fractures, Productive Strata reservoirs, eruptive channels of the mud volcanoes.

Approach. The collaboration interpretation results of the deep drilling and the seismic data by using the common depth point method.

Results. Based on the structural interpretation results of the seismic data with high-resolution parameters, are indicated the lack of the tectonic faults which connecting the hydrocarbon generation source with reservoirs of the Productive Strata in the SCB.

In addition, the hydrocarbons that generated in the Maikop sediments are transported to the Productive Strata reservoirs by the eruptive channels of mud volcanoes. The opinion that the process of hydrocarbon generation in the Maikop clay deposits continues to the present time and the mud volcanoes eruptive channels provide feeding of the deposits with the continuous supply of oil-and-gas was expressed. Such kind of mechanism allows to classify the deposits, that more than a century under developed in the South Caspian Depression and which located at the zone of mud volcanomaturity, to the category of replenished.


Alizade, A.A., Gulieyv, I.S., Mamedov, P.Z., Alieva, E.G., Feyzullaev, A.A., & Guseynov, D.A. (2018). Productive stratum of Azerbaijan. Moscow: Nedra, V. 1, 305 p., V. 2. 236 p. (in Russian).

Block structure of the Earth’s crust and oil-and-gas potential. (1994). Thesis at theoretical and practical conference, 17—19 January, 1994. St. Petersburg: VNIGRI Edition, 139 p. (in Russian).

Block structure of the Earth’s crust and oil-and-gas potential. (1994). Thesis at International conference, 11—14 May, 1999. St. Petersburg: VNIGRI Edition, 98 p. (in Russian).

Guliyev, I.S., Yusubov, N.P., & Guseynova, Sh.N. (2020). On the formation mechanism of mud volcanoes in the South Caspian Basin according to 2D/3D seismic data. Fizika Zemli, (5), 131—138 (in Russian).

Kerimov, K.M., Guseynov, A.N., Gadjiyev, F. M., Gasanov, I.S., Guseynov, G.A., Kocharli, Sh.S., & Zeynalov, M.M. (2002). Map of tectonic zoning of oil-and-gas bearing regions of Azerbaijan. Baku: Fabrika kartografii (in Russian).

Kerimov, K.M., Novruzov, A.K., & Daneshvar, S.N. (2012). Deep faults and some features of oil-and-gas fields in the South Caspian megadepression. Baku University News, (3), 69—78 (in Russian).

Kudryavtsev, N.A. (1963). Deep faults and oil fields. Leningrad: Gostoptechizdat, 220 p. (in Russian).

Lukk, А.А., & Shevchenko, V.I. (2019). Seismicity, tectonics and GPS geodynamics of the Caucasus Kavkaza. Fizika Zemli, (4), 99—123 (in Russian).

Tisso, B., & Velte, D. (1981). Formation and distribution of oil. Moscow: Mir, 501 p. (in Russian).

Khain, N.Dj. (2010). Geology, exploration, drilling and oil production. Moscow: ZAO «OlimpBusiness», 752 p. (in Russian).

Yusubov, N.P. (2020). On the issue of fault tectonics of depression zones in Azerbaijan according to seismic data. SOCAR Proceedings, (3), 011—017 (in Russian).

Kadirov, F.A., Floyd, M., Reilinger, R., Alizadeh, А.A., Guliyev, I.S., Mammadov, S.G., & Safarov, R.T. (2015). Active geodynamics of the Caucasus region: implications for earthquake hazards in Azerbaijan. Proceedings of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. The Sciences of Earth, (Vol. 3, pp. 3—17).

Yetirmishli, G.J., Ismailova, S.S., Kazimova, S.E. (2021). Seismicity of the territory of Azerbaijan. Seismoprognosis observations in the territory of Azerbaijan, 19(1), 3—18.



How to Cite

Yusubov, N. ., & Shikhmammadova, T. . (2022). Hydrocarbon system of the South Caspian Depression. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 44(3), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.24028/gj.v44i3.261971