Seismic effect assessment of the southern slope of Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan) based on the earthquake scenarios: ground parameters and acceleration models
In this paper, earthquake scenarios parameters were assessed for deterministic seis-mic hazard of the southern slope of Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan). Historically, there occurred strong earthquakes in the studied region. Series of soft and strong earthquakes occurred for the recent years on the southern slope of Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan in Balakan (14.10.2012, M = 5,6; 29.06.2014, M = 5,3); Zagatala (07.05.2012, M = 5,7; 18.05.2012, M = 5,0; 05.06.2018, M = 5,5); Sheki (earthquake swarm 05.02.2004, M = 3,2 ¸ 4.6); Sheki-Oguz (04.09.2015, M = 5,9); Gabala 04.10.2014, M = 5,0); Ismailli (05.02.2019, M = 5,2) demonstrates the increase of seismic activity in the given region and proves once aga-in the necessity and actuality of continuation of the seismic hazard assessment resear-ches. For earthquake scenarios of various distances, average response spectrum (5 % attenuation) of surface ground fluctuation was plotted, peak ground acceleration were assessed at the maximum magnitude, series of peak ground acceleration models were simulated at respective MSK-64 intensity, and also amplification factor distribution map. The comparative analysis allows presuming that amplification occurs due to the resonance processes, that is, softer soils produce seismic wave amplitude amplification as a result of impedance differences of those layers and harder rocks. Seismic intensity increase is observed in the sites with soft-cemented sand-clayey soils, although with sands-tones, limestone and sandy marlstone of various thicknesses. It is demonstrated that ground displacements are various and not obviously oriented towards seismic source.
Full Text:PDF (Русский)
Abikh, G. V. (1862). Earthquakes in Shemakha and Erzurum in May 1859. In Notes of the Caucasian Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society (Book V, pp. 1―19). Tiflis (in Russian).
Agayeva, S. (1999). Fields of elastic stresses of seismogenic structures of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus (within Azerbaijan): Candidate’s thesis. Baku, 150 p. (in Russian).
Agamirzoyev, R. А. (1987). Seismotectonics of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus. Baku: Elm, 118 p. (in Russian).
Aptikaev, F., & Kopnichev, Yu. (1979). Accounting for the mechanism of the earthquake source when predicting the parameters of strong motions. Doklady AN SSSR, 247(4), 822―825 (in Russian).
Aptikaev, F. F., & Shebalin, N. V. (1988). Refinement of correlations between the level of macroseismic effect and dynamic parameters of soil movement. Seismic hazard studies. Voprosy inzhenernoy seysmologii, (29), 98―108 (in Russian).
Babayev G. R. (2017). Modeling of strong ground fluctuations in the territory of the city of Baku according to microseismic data and parameters of tangible scenario earthquakes: Doctor’s thesis. Baku, 265 p. (in Russian).
Babayev, G. R., Akhmedova, E. V., & Kadirov, F. A. (2017). Analysis of stress-strain state of Caucasus region (Azerbaijan) on the basis of maximum horizontal stress vectors and World Stress Map. Application technique. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 39(3), 26―39. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v39i3.2017.104026 (in Russian).
Byus, E. I. (1948). Seismic conditions of Transcaucasia. Part 1. Chronology of earthquakes in Transcaucasia. Tbilisi: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, 304 p. (in Russian).
Weber, V. N. (1903). Shemakha earthquake of January 31, 1902. Proc. of the St. Petersburg Geological Committee (in Russian).
Khain, V. E., Alizade, Ak. A. (Eds.). (2005). Geology of Azerbaijan, Vol. IV. Tectonics. Baku: Nafta Press (in Russian).
Alizade, Ak. A. (Ed.). (2015). Tectonics. In Geology of Azerbaijan (Vol. 2, Section 3, pp. 192―213). Baku, Elm (in Russian).
Gubin, I. E. (1974). Seismogenic fractures and their significance for seismic zoning. Geotectonika, (6), 29―40 (in Russian).
Ismail-Zade, A. D., Kangarli, T. N., Korobanov, V. V., Mustafaev, G. V., Narimanov, A. A., & Rustamov, M. I. (2008). Geological map of Azerbaijan. Scale 1 : 500,000. Explanatory note. Baku, 85 p. (in Russian).
Kadirov, F. A., Kadyrov, A. G., Babaev, G. R., Agayeva, S. T., Mamedov, S. K., Garagezova, N. R., & Safarov, R. T. (2013). Seismic zoning of the southern slope of Greater Caucasus from the fractal parameters of the earthquakes, stress state, and GPS velocities. Fizika Zemli, (4), 111―119 (in Russian).
Kangarli, T. N. (2003). Tectonic stratification of structural-material complexes of the Azerbaijani part of the Greater Caucasus. Assessment of seismic hazard and risk in oil and gas bearing areas: Report Theses of the International Conference on the 100th anniversary of the Shamakhi earthquake (pp. 218―219). Baku (in Russian).
Malinovskiy, N. V. (1940). Materials on the seismic study of the Azerbaijan SSR. Baku: Publ. House of the Azerbaijan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 62 p. (in Russian).
Mammadli, T. Ya. (2007). Weak seismicity of the territory of Azerbaijan and its connection with modern geodynamics: Doctor’s thesis. Baku, 350 p. (in Azeri).
Riznichenko, Yu. V. (1974). Geological and geophysical data for solving the problem of seismic hazard. In Proc. of the conference on the study of seismicity and the deep structure of Azerbaijan (pp. 3―19). Baku: Elm (in Russian).
Shebalin, N. V. (1968). Methods of using engineering seismological data in seismic zoning. In Seismic zoning of the USSR (pp. 95―111). Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
Ulomov, V. I. (1993). Global ordering of seismic-geodynamic structures and some aspects of seismic zoning and long-term earthquake prediction. In Seismicity and seismic zoning of Northern Eurasia. (is. 1, pp. 24―44). Moscow: Publ. House of the Institute of Physics of the Earth RAS (in Russian).
Agayeva, S. T., & Babayev, G. R. (2009). Analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms for Greater and Lesser Caucasus applying the method of World Stress Map: Proc. of the Geology Institute Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (pp. 40―44). Baku: Nafta-Press.
Alizadeh, A. A., Guliyev, I. S., Kadirov, F. A., & Eppelbaum, L. V. (2016). Geosciences of Azerbaijan. Vol. I: Geology. Springer International Publishing, 340 p. doi: 1007/978-3-319-27395-2.239.
Babayev, G., Tibaldi, A., Bonali, F., & Kadirov, F. (2014). Evaluation of earthquake-induced strain in promoting mud eruptions: the case of Shamakhi―Gobustan―Absheron areas, Azerbaijan. Natural hazards, 72(2), 789―808. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1035-5.
Babayev, G., Gadirov, F., Agayeva, S., & Ismail-Zade, T. (2017). Assessment of seismic processes in the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan): Proc. of AASSA NAS KR Regional Workshop “Science, State, Structures and Public ― Joint Efforts to Reduce the Risks and Consequences of Earthquakes”, Bishkek, Kirgizistan, October (pp. 25―30). “Printhouse” Publishing House.
Bonilla, M. G., Mark, R. K., & Lienkaemper, J. J. (1984). Statistical relations among earthquake magnitude, surface rupture length and surface fault displacement. Bulletin of Seismology Society of American, 74, 2379―2411.
McKenzie, D. P. (1972). Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Geophysical Journal International, 30(2), 109―185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1972.tb02351.x.
Peresan, A., Zuccolo, E., Vaccari, F., Gorshkov, A., Panza, G. F. (2011). Neo-deterministic seismic hazard and pattern recognition techniques: Time-dependent scenarios for North-Eastern Italy. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 168(3-4), 583―607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-010-0166-1.
Philip, H., Cisternas, A., Gvishiani, A., & Gorshkov, A. (1989). The Caucasus: An actual example of the initial stages of continental collision. Tectonophysics, 161(1-2), 1―21. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(89)90297-7.
Reilinger, R., McClusky, S., Vernant, P., Lawrence, Sh., Ergintav, S., Cakmak, R., … Karam, G. (2006). GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions. Journal of Geophysical research, 111(B5), B05411. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB004051.
Şengör, A. M. C., Görür, N. & Şaroğlu, F. (1985). Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. In: Bıddle, K. T. & Chrıstıe-Blıck, N. (Eds.), Strike-Slip Faulting and Basin Formation (pp. 227―264). Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publications, 37.
Telesca, L., Kadirov, F., Yetirmishli, G., Safarov, F., Babayev, G., & Ismaylova, S. (2017). Statistical analysis of the 2003―2016 seismicity of Azerbaijan and surrounding areas. Journal of Seismology, 21(6), 1467―1485. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-017-9677-x.
Telesca, L., Lovallo, M., Babayev, G., & Kadirov, F. (2013). Spectral and informational analysis of seismicity: an application to the 1996―2012 seismicity of Northern Caucasus-Azerbaijan part of Greater Caucasus-Kopet Dag Region. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 392(23), 6064―6078. doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2013.07.031.
Trifunac, M. D., & Brady A. G. (1975). On the correlation of seismic intensity scales with the peaks of ground motion records. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 65(1), 139―162.
Utsi, T. (1961). Statistical study of occurrence of aftershocks. Geophysical Magazine, 30, 521―605.
Zuccolo, E., Vaccari, F., Peresan, A., & Panza, G. F. (2011). Neo-Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments: A Comparison over the Italian Territory. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 168(1-2), 69―83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-010-0151-8.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.