On the transformation of the coordinates of points from the SK-42 system to WGS-84


  • A. I. Yakimchik Subbotin Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine




geodetic coordinates Pulkovo 1942, ellipsoid WGS-84, Earth's normal gravity field, data conversion, software


The significant and effective use of global positioning satellite systems for solution of important theoretical and applied problems of Earth sciences means the preserving of the possibility to use a huge quantity of geodetic, cartographic, gravimetric and other data created on the basis of traditional methods and in different referencing coordinate systems. It is impossible without the correct coordinate transformation at the transition from one system to another. The determination of the coordinates of points using the satellite radio navigation system NAVSTAR GPS is closely related to the world geodetic coordinate system WGS-84. At the same time, data on gravity observations within the Pulkovo 1942 coordinate system have been accumulated in large volumes. It is obvious the need for recalculation of coordinates given in different systems. Information is given on the coordinate systems, geodetic coordinates, units of measurement, display formats for latitude and longitude values. The reference coordinate system of Pulkovo 1942 and the modern world geodetic system WGS-84 are described in sufficient detail. Formulas are given for calculating the normal gravity in these systems. Historical background and classification of coordinate transformation methods are considered. Significant role is given to the high-precision method of Molodensky and the modified Helmert method of coordinate transformation. The standard method of Molodensky is described at the level it is described in official open reports of US government agencies. Programs are considered that automate the solution of the problem of recalculating the coordinates of objects, as well as the issues of transformation of coordinate systems in geographical information systems. The attention is focused on the rash use of the software that might lead to some very strange and inexplicable results.


Antonovich, K. M. (2005). The use of satellite radio navigation systems in geodesy. Vol. 1. Moscow: FSUE “Kartgeocenter”, 333 p. (in Russian).

Belenkov, O.V. (2009). The method of establishing local coordinate systems. Geoprofi, (2), 32—34 (in Russian).

Bugaevsky, L.M. (1998). Mathematical Cartography. Moscow: Zlatoust, 400 p. (in Russian).

Bulatsen, V. G., Khalyavina, L. YA., & Borisyuk, T. Ye. (2019). Characteristics of the gravity field of predictive oil-gas areas in the DDD region according to satellite model EGM08 and gravity measurements at the beginning of the XX century. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 41(1), 95—107. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v41i1.2019.158866 (in Russian).

Vakhrameeva, L. A., Bugaevsky, L. M., & Kazakova, Z. L. (1986). Mathematical cartography: Textbook for high schools. Moscow: Nedra, 286 p. (in Russian).

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, G., & Collins, D. (1995). Global Positioning System (GPS). Theory and Practice. Ya. S. Yatskiva (Ed.). Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 380 p. (in Ukrainian).

Mudretsova, E. A., & Veselova, K. E. (Eds.). (1990). Gravity Exploration: A Handbook of Geophysics. Moscow: Nedra, 607 p. (in Russian).

Zakatov, P.S. (1976). Course in Higher Geodesy. Moscow: Nedra, 511 p. (in Russian).

Komarovsky, Yu. A. (205). The use of various reference ellipsoids in navigation. Vladivostok: Publю of the Maritime State University, 341 p. (in Russian).

Kucher, O.V., Zayats, I.M., Stopkhai, Yu.A., & Renkevich, A.V. Transformation of coordinates from the state geodetic system to the world system WGS-84. Visnyk heodeziyi ta kartohrafiyi, (3), 8—14 (in Ukrainian).

Interstate standard. GOST 32453—2017. (2017). Global Navigation Satellite System. Coordinate systems. Methods of transforming coordinates of defined points. Enter 2018.07.01. Moscow: Standartinform, 19 p. (in Russian).

Molodenskiy, M.S., Eremeev, V.F., & Yurkina, M.I. (1960). Methods for studying the external gravitational field and the Earth's figure. Trudy TSNIIGAiK, (131), 251 p. (in Russian).

Morozov, V.P. (1979). Course of spheroidal geodesy. Moscow: Nedra, 296 p. (in Russian).

National standard of the Russian Federation. GOST R 51794-2008. (2009). Global navigation satellite systems. Coordinate systems. Methods of transforming coordinates of defined points. Enter 2009.09.01. Moscow: Standartinform, 15 p. (in Russian).

National standard of the Russian Federation. GOST R 52572-2006. (2006). Geographic information systems. Coordinate basis. General requirements. Enter 2007.01.01. Moscow: Standartinform, 11 p. (in Russian).

Nepoklonov, V. B., & Tyulkin, V. V. (2003). A comparative study of programs for converting geodetic coordinates. Izvestiya vuzov «Geodeziya i aerofotosyemka», (6), 14—28 (in Russian).

Ogorodova, L.V. (2006). Higher Geodesy. Part III. Theoretical Surveying. Moscow: Geodezkartizdat, 338 p. (in Russian).

Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of April 7, 1946 No. 760 “On the introduction of a unified system of geodetic coordinates and heights in the USSR”. (1946). Retrieved from http://www.alppp.ru/law/hozjajstvennaja-dejatelnost/geologija--geodezija-i-kartografija/8/postanovlenie-sovmina-sssr-ot-07-04-1946--760.html.

World Geodetic System Manual-1984 (WGS-84). Doc 9674 AN/946. Second edition. International Civil Aviation Organization. (2002). Retrieved from http://ggspb.org/normativnaya-baza/files/rukovodstvo-po-vsemirnoi-geodezicheskoi-sisteme-1984.pdf.

Timofeev, A. N., & Legachev, S. S. (2005). On the transformation of coordinate systems in MapInfo Professional. Geoprofi, (1), 18—20 (in Russian).

Chornyy, A. V., Chorna, O. A., & Yakimchik, A. I. (2013). The theory of mathematical processing of geodetic measurements. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 294 p. (in Ukrainian).

Yurkina, M.I., & Serebrova, L.I. (2001). Current coordinate systems in Russia. Izvestiya vuzov «Geodeziya i aerofotosyemka», (3), 40—53 (in Russian).

Yakimchik, A.I. (2010). A technology of digitization of practical materials maps based on software programs Maplnfo Professional and CorelDRAW. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 32(3), 112—124. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v32i3.2010.117544 (in Russian).

BAE Systems. (2019). Mensuration Services Program (MSP). User's Guide for MSP Geographic Translator (GEOTRANS) Version 3.8. Document No.: 2100434. San Diego. 176 p. Retrieved from https://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/update/wgs84/apps/geotrans/current-version/docs/MSP_GeoTrans_Users_Guide%203.8.pdf.

External Quality Evaluation Reports of EGM08. International Association of Geodesy and International Gravity Field Service. Bureau Gravimétrique International Geoid Service Joint Bulletin. Newton's Bulletin. Issue No 4, April 2009. 331 p. Retrieved from http://www.isgeoid.polimi.it/Newton/Newton_4/NEWTON4_TOTAL.pdf.

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H. & Wasle, E. (2008). GNSS — Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and more. Wien, New York: Springer. 516 p.

Merrigan, M. J., Swift, E. R., Wong, R, F. & Saffell, J. T. (2002). A refinement to the World Geodetic System 1984 reference frame. Proceedings of the 15th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 2002). Portland, Oregon, September 24—27, 1519—1529.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). Standardization Document. (2014). World Geodetic System 1984: Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems. NGA.STND.0036_1.0.0_WGS84, Version 1.0.0, Department of Defense. Office of Geomatics. Retrieved from https://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/update/wgs84/NGA.STND.0036_1.0.0_WGS84.pdf.



How to Cite

Yakimchik, A. I. (2019). On the transformation of the coordinates of points from the SK-42 system to WGS-84. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 41(5), 165–189. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v41i5.2019.183641




Most read articles by the same author(s)