Seismotectonics of the Koryak Highland — one of active edge of the continent of Eurasia
Keywords:northeastern outskirt of Asia, Bering plate, Koryak Highland, seismicity, volcanism, block-key tectonics, Khailino and Mount Ledyanaya high-magnitude seismogenic centers
In the article the features of the general seismotectonics of the Koryak Highland as the northwestern part of the framing of the Bering plate, including the latest (09.01.2020) seismic activation in the area of Mount Ledyanaya are presented. Comparison with the general seismotectonics of the Ukrainian Carpathians, another of the moderately active platform outskirts of the Eurasian continent is also given. These features are established on the basis of a complex of geological-geophysical and the latest GNSS data and a detailed system analysis of the structural elements of the geological-tectonic system and seismotectonic activity of the Koryak region and its discrete zones using seismic data from the catalogue of the Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the RAS. The researches methodology is based on the author’s geological and geophysical concepts of the block-key structure and tectonics of lithosphere of the active margins of the continents of the Pacific mobile belts of seismicity and volcanism and the «crocodile» alpine tectonics of the Ukrainian Carpathians. It is shown that the geomechanics of the Koryak region is a complex spatiotemporal combination of collision, shear and horst-graben («keyboard-like») tectonic processes, which reflect the general features and characteristic peculiarities of the geodynamics and seismotectonics of the Bering plate and the Koryak seismic belt as the northwestern part of its frame. Those processes appear in the peculiarities of the tectonic structure of the regions lithosphere and in the features of regional and local seismicity. In particular, for the first time by a complex of system data, the shear component of the movements of the Bering plate relative to the Eurasian plate was tracked in detail and the reflection of this component in the features of local seismotectonic processes was traced. According to seismicity monitoring data for the period 2000—2020 a tectonic-linked earthquake map of the Koryak seismic belt, extending along the northwestern coast of the Bering Sea, including the Koryak Highland, was constructed. By the strong seismic events and swarms of aftershocks in the belt the Ilpyrsky, Khailino, and Mount Ledyanaya high-magnitude (with M > 5.0) seismogenic centers have been identified. The connection of these seismogenic centers with the peculiarities of the tectonics of the region is traced. The collisional-rheological and deep-tectonic genesis of «keyboard-like» tectonics in the highlands and its relationship with high-magnitude seismogenic units and volcanogens of the Koryak-Chukchi Cenozoic volcanic belt are also traced. A comparative analysis of the seismotectonics of the Koryak Highland and the Ukrainian Carpathians made it possible to more clearly trace the general features and the peculiarities of the components of the «keyboard-like» and «crocodile» seismotectonics of these regions. The researches results make it possible to more reliably evaluate the level and characteristics of seismic hazard for the considered regions, especially for the Koryak Highland, and they should also be taken into account at minerals exploration here and at organizing the work of mining enterprises.
In the next article the peculiarities of seismotectonics of the high-magnitude focal zones of the Koryak seismic belt and the Ukrainian Carpathians, and in particular, the latest of them in the Mount Ledyanaya area (Koryak Highland) will be more detailed considered.
Ankundinov, L.A., & Rozhkova, V.K. (1970). State geological map of the USSR. K 1 : 200 000. Koryak Series. Sheets P-58-XXXV, O-58-V. Explanatory letter. Moscow, 58 p. (in Russian).
Aprelkov, S.E., Dekina, G.P., & Popruzhenko, S.V. (1997). Specific features of geological structure of the Koryak Uplands and basin of the river Penzhyna. Tikhookeanskaya geologiya, 16(2), 46-57 (in Russian).
Baykov, A.I., & Yarotskyy, G.P. (1979). On the tectonics of the continent-ocean transition zone in Kamchatka: XIV Pacific International Congress (pp. 67-68). Khabarovsk-Moscow (in Russian).
Belyi, V.F. (2003). Structural zones of northwest strike - an actual problem of the Cenozoic tectonics of North-East Asia: Geodynamics, magmatism and mineragenia of the continental margins of the Pacific North. Proc. of the All-Russian meeting (Vol. 1, pp. 147-149). Magadan (in Russian).
Belyavskiy, V.V., Zotov, E.E., Rakitov, V.A., Nurmukhamedov, A.G., Popruzhenko, S.V., Shpak, I.P., & Khrapov, A.V. (2007). Deep seismic geoelect-ric model of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcano-genic belt and the Central Koryak folded zone within the Korf-Upper Penzhino profile. In Olyutor earthquake of April 20(21), 2006, Koryak Uplands. The first research results (pp. 277-288). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Publ. by the Geophysical Survey RAS (in Russian).
Bokun, A.M., & Nazarevych, A.V. (2013). Structure and dynamics of horizontal shear zones (by results of physical modelling and field studies). Geodynamika, (1), 129-141. https://doi.org/10.23939/jgd2013.01.129 (in Russian).
Vashchilov, Yu.Ya. (1982). The deep structure of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt according to geophysical data. Tikhookeanskaya geologiya, (4), 45-47 (in Russian).
Gabsatarov, Yu.V. (2015). Kinematics of microplates in northeast Asia: Candidate’s thesis. Moscow: IPE RAS, 192 p. (in Russian).
Gabsatarov, Yu.V., Steblov, G.M., & Frolov, D.I. (2013). Results of new GPS observations in the area of the Bering microplate. Fizika Zemli, (2), 1-5 (in Russian).
Gorodinskiy, M.E. (Ed.). (1982). Geological map of the North-East of the USSR. Leningrad: Edition VSEGEI, SVGU Mingeo USSR (in Russian).
Gintov, O.B. (2005). Field tectonophysics and its application for the studies of deformations of the Earth’s crust of Ukraine. Kiev: Feniks, 572 p. (in Russian).
Guseva, T.V., Krupennikova, I.S., Mokrova, A.N., & Perederin, V.P. (2016). Geodetic satellite monitoring and seismic activity of the north-west of Russia. Sovremennyye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 13(5), 133-141. https://doi.org/10.21046/2070-7401-2016-13-5-133-141 (in Russian).
Dmitriev, V.D., & Yarotskiy, G.P. (1974). The role of stresses in the formation of ore-bearing structures of the Koryak-Kamchatka region. In Mechanics of the lithosphere (pp. 64-66). Moscow: Nedra (in Russian).
Litvinov, A.F., Patoka, N.G., Markovskiy, B.A. (Eds.). (1999). Map of minerals of the Kamchatka region. Scale 1 : 500,000. St. Petersburg: Edition VSEGEI, 19 s. (in Russian).
Solovyov, V.V., & Ryzhkova, V.M. (Eds.). (1996). Relief map of the base of the lithosphere of Russia. Scale 1 : 10,000,000. Explanatory note (pp. 187-194). Moscow-St. Petersburg: Edition Roskomnedra, VSEGEI (in Russian).
Catalogue of earthquakes of Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. Seismological Data Information System, Kamchatka Branch of GS RAS. (2020). Retrieved from http://sdis.emsd.ru/info/earthquakes/catalogue.php (in Russian).
Kopp, M.L., Verzhbitskiy, V.E., Kolesnichenko, A.A., Tveritinova, T.Yu., Vasil’ev, N.Yu., Korchemagin, V.A., Mostryukov, A.O., & Ioffe, A.I. (2014). Recent Stress Field in the East of the Russian Plate and the Urals from Macro- and Mesostructural Evidence. Geotectonika, (4), 23-43. https://doi.org/10.7868/S0016853X14040067 (in Russian).
Kornilov, B.A. (1971). Map of the anomalous magnetic field of the USSR. Explanatory note. Sheet P-58, 59. Moscow: Tsentrgeologiya, 36 s. (in Russian).
Lander A.V., Bukchin B.G., Droznin, D.V., & Kiryushin, A.V. (1994). Tectonic position and focal parameters of the Khailino (Koryak) earthquake of March 8, 1991: does the Beringia plate exist? Vychislitel’naya seysmologiya, (26),103-122 (in Russian).
Lander, A.V., Levina, V.I., & Ivanova, E.I. (2007). Olyutor earthquake of April 20(21) 2006, Мw = = 7.6: seismic history of the region and preliminary results of study of a series of aftershocks. In Olyutor earthquake of April 20(21), 2006, Koryak Uplands. The first research results (pp. 14-33). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Publ. by the Geophysical Survey RAS (in Russian).
Levina, V.I., Lander, A.V., Mityushkina, S.V., & Chebrova, A.Yu. (2013). Seismicity of the Kamchatka region 1962-2011. Vulkanologiya i seysmologiya, (1), 41-64. https://doi.org/10.7868/S0203030613010057 (in Russian).
Chekunov, A.V. (Ed.). (1987). Lithosphere of Central and Eastern Europe. Geotraverse I, II, V. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 168 p. (in Russian).
Lozynyak, P., & Misyura, Ya. (2010). Peculiarities of geological structure of pre-Neogene foundation of Transcarpathian depression. Heolohiya i heokhimiya horyuchykh kopalyn, (3-4), 73-83 (in Ukrainian).
Lopatin, B.V., & Yarotskyy, G.P. (1983). On tectonic and mineralogical zoning of the north of the Kamchatka region. In Geological structure and minerals of Kamchatka (pp. 46-49). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (in Russian).
Moroz, Yu.F. (1987). Deep structure of the south-western part of the Koryak plateau. Sovetskaya geologiya, (5), 118-123 (in Russian).
Nazarevych, A.V. Peculiarities of processes in foci on the example of catastrophic Sumatran earthquakes. In Theoretical and applied aspects of geoinformatics (pp. 260-278). Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Nazarevych, A.V., & Nazarevych, L.Ye. (2013а). Geodynamics, tectonics and seismicity of the Carpathian region of Ukraine. Geodynamika, (2), 247-249. https://doi.org/10.23939/jgd2013.02.247 (in Ukrainian).
Nazarevych, A.V., & Nazarevych, L.Ye. (2002). Deep Trap-of-collection tectonic structures in the lithosphere of Carpathian region of Ukraine: the nature, genesis and prospective resources. Naukovyy visnyk Ivano-Frankivs’koho natsional’noho tekhnichnoho universytetu nafty i hazu, (3), 10-21 (in Ukrainian).
Nazarevych, L.Ye., & Nazarevych, A.V. (2006). Peculiarities of preparation and characteristics of a source of 1965 Beregovo earthquake (by macroseismic data). Geodynamika, (1), 61-74 (in Ukrainian).
Nazarevych, A.V., & Nazarevych, L.Ye. (2019). On the terraine features of the geodynamics of the Ukrainian Carpathians and their relation to the oil-and-gas bearing: Proc. of the In ternational Scientific and Practical Conference «Mining of mineral resources in Ukraine. Prospects for Investment», Ukraine, Truskavets, 7-11 October 2019, Kyiv, 2019 (Vol. 1, pp. 355-359) (in Ukrainian).
Nazarevych, L.Ye., & Nazarevych, A.V. (2013b). Seismicity of the Ukrainian part of the Folded Carpathians. Problemy seysmologii v Uzbekistane, (10), 16-22 (in Russian).
Nazarevych, L.Ye., & Nazarevych, A.V. (2012). Seismicity and some features of seismic tectonics of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Geodynamika, (1), 145-151. https://doi.org/10.23939/jgd2012.01.145 (in Ukrainian).
Nurmukhamedov, A.G., Nedyadko, V.V., Rakitov, V.A., & Lipatiev, M.S. (2016). The lithosphere boundaries in Kamchatka based on data on the earthquake converted-wave method (ECWM). Vestnik KRAUNTS. Nauki o Zemle, (1), 35-52 (in Russian).
Chebrov, V.N. (Ed.). (2007). Olyutor earthquake of April 20(21) 2006, Koryak upland. The first research results. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Published by the Geophysical Service RAS, 290 p. (in Russian).
Pozdeev, A.I. (1986). State geological map of the USSR. Scale 1 : 200 000. Sheet R-59-XIV (Uchkhichkhilya Pass). Explanatory note. Moscow, 107 p. (in Russian).
Polyakov, G.P., & Yarotsky, G.P. (1980). Metasomatic zonation of secondary quartzites of the Maletoyvayamsky ore units of Northern Kamchatka. In Ore zonation and physical chemistry of hydrothermal systems (pp. 43-49). Novosibirsk: Nauka (in Russian).
Rogozhin, E.A. (2012). Essays on Regional Seismotectonics. Moscow: Published by the Institute of Physics of the Earth RAS, 340 p. (in Russian).
Filatova, N.I., Yegorova, I.V., & Dvoryankin, A.I. (Eds.). (1984). Structures of the continental and transitional crust in satellite imagery. Moscow: Nedra, 211 p. (in Russian).
Fedotov, S.A., Chekhovich, V.D., & Yegorkin, A.V. (2011). The Neogene Deep Structure of the South of the Koryak Upland and the Modern Seismicity of the Region. Doklady AN, 437(5), 655-658 (in Russian).
Chekunov, A.V., Livanova, L.P., & Geyko, V.S. (1969). Deep structure and some features of tectonics of the Transcarpathian trough. Sovetskaya geologiya, (10), 57-68 (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (2006). Geological and geophysical regularities of localisation of Volcanic Sulfur Deposits in the Pacific Ore Belt (Koryakia, Kamchatka, Kuril Islands, Japan). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Publ. House of the V. Bering name Kamchatka State University, 138 p. (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (1974). Regularities of sulfur deposits localisation in the North Kamchatka sulfur-bearing region and geophysical methods in their exploration: Candidateўs thesis, 20 p. (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (2014). Transverse dislocations of the active margins of the continents of the Pacific ore belt. Geophysical exploration. Books 2 and 3. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Publ. House of the FSBEI HPE V. Bering name Kamchatka State University, 319 p. (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (2010). Fault-block tectonics of the lithosphere of the north-eastern part of the Pacific coast of Eurasia as a source of earthquakes in the south-west of the Koryak upland. Geodynamika, (1), 28-36 (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (2008). Seismicity and fault tectonics of the south-west of the Koryak Highlands. «Tectonophysics and topical questions of Earth sciences. On the 40th anniversary of the creation of M.V. Gzovsky the laboratory of tectonophysics at the Institute of Physics of the Earth of RAS». Proceedings of the All-Russian Conference (Vol. 2, pp. 372-375). Moscow: Publ. by the Institute of Physics of the Earth (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (2003). Tectonics and minerageny of the continental - ocean transition zone. Geodynamics, magmatism and minerageny of the continental margins of the North Pacific. Proceedings of the All-Russian Meeting (Vol. 3, pp. 244-249). Magadan (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (2013). The tectonic phenomenon of the Khailino earthquake of March 8, 1991 in the South-West of the Koryak Highlands. Geodynamika, (1), 110-123 (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P. (2016). The phenomenon of the Khailino earthquake of 1991 in the south-west of the Koryak Highlands. Book 4. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Publ. House of the V. Bering name Kamchatka State University, 177 p. (in Russian).
Yarotsky, G.P., Nazarevych, A.V., Nazarevych, L.Ye., & Lyashkevich, Z.M. (2015). About the connection of seismicity with geodyna-mics, fault-block tectonics and volcanism (on the example of Kamchatka and the Ukrainian Carpathians). 100 years of instrumental seismological observations in Kamchatka. Proceedings of the Fifth scientific and technical conference «Problems of integrated geophysical monitoring of the Russian Far East» September 27 - October 3, 2015. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (CD) (in Russian).
Alaska Earthquake Center (2020). Retrieved from https://earthquake.alaska.edu/earthquakes.
Bürgmann, R., Kogan, M.G., Steblov, G.M., Hilley, G., Levin, V.E., & Apel, E. (2005). Interseismic coupling and asperity distribution along the Kamchatka subduction zone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 110(B7), B07405. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003648.
Catalog СЕС. (2020). Retrieved from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/data/centennial/centennial_Y2K.CAT
Cross, R.S., & Freymueller, J.T. (2008). Evidence for and implications of a Bering plate based on geodetic measurements from the Aleutians and western Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 113(B7), B07405. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005136.
Earthquakes of Alaska - December 1918 to November 2019. NOAA/NWS/Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=VMg96IU1LD4.
Enders, M., Boyce, E.S., Bierma, R., Walker, K., & Feaux, K. (2011). The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region, an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement. Eos Trans. AGU, Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract G41A-0718.
Fujita, K., Mackey, K.G., McCaleb, R.C., Cunbina, L.V., Kkovalev, V.N., Imaev, V.S., & Smirnov, V.N. (2002). Seismicity of Chukotka, northeastern Russia. In E.L. Miller, A. Grantz, S.L. Klemper (Eds.), Tectonic Evolution of the Bering Shelf-Chukchi Sea-Arctic Margin and Adjacent Landmasses (Vol. 360, pp. 259-272). Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Pap. Ser.
Global Centroid Moment Tensor Catalog. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.globalcmt.org/CMTsearch.html.
Gordeev, E.I., Pinegina, T.K., Lander, A.V. & Kozhurin, A.I. (2015). Beringia: Seismic hazard and fundamental problems of geotectonics. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, 51(4), 512-521. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1069351315030039.
Kogan, M.G., & Steblov, G.M. (2008). Current global plate kinematics from GPS (1995-2007) with the plate-consistent reference frame. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 113(B4), B04416. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005353.
Kováčiková, S., Logvinov, I., Nazarevych, A., Nazarevych, L., Pek, J., Tarasov, V., & Kalenda, P. (2016). Seismic activity and deep conductivity structure of the Eastern Carpathians. Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 60, 280-296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11200-014-0942-y.
Mackey, K.G., Fujita, K., Gunbina, L.V., Kovalev, V.N., Imaev, V.S., Koz’min, B.M., & Imaeva, L.P. (1997). Seismicity of the Bering Strait region: evidence for a Bering block. Geology, 25(11), 979-982. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0979:SOTBSR>2.3.CO;2.
Okal, E.A. (2005). A re-evaluation of the great Aleutian and Chilean earthquakes of 1906 August 17. Geophysical Journal International, 161(2), 268-282. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02582.x
Search Earthquake Catalog/USGS. (2020). Retrieved from https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/.
Starostenko, V., Janik, T., Kolomiyets, K., Czuba, W., Środa, P., Grad, M., Kovács, I., Stephenson, R., Lysynchuk, D., Thybo, H., Artemieva, I., Omelchenko, V., Gintov, O., Kutas, R., Gryn, D., Guterch, A., Hegedűs, E., Komminaho, K., Legostaeva, O., Tiira, T., & Tolkunov, A. (2013). Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Craton. Tectonophysics, 608, 1049-1072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2013.07.008.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).