Computation of velocities and polarization vectors in weakly anisotropic media
Keywords:phase velocity, group velocity, polarization vector, Christoffel equation, perturbation theory
To compute the phase velocities in the weakly anisotropic media, we propose to transform the Christoffel matrix K into an adapted coordinate system, and, then, apply the perturbation theory to the resulting matrix X. For a weakly anisotropic medium, the off-diagonal elements of the matrix X are small compared to the diagonal ones, and two of them are equal to 0. The diagonal elements of the matrix X are initial approximations of the phase velocities squared. To refine them, it is proposed to use either iterative schemes or Taylor series expansions. The initial terms of the series and the formulas of iterative schemes are expressed through the elements of the matrix X and have a compact analytical representation. The odd-order terms in the series are equal to 0. To approximate the phase velocities of the S1 and S2 waves, a stable method is proposed based on solving a quadratic equation with the coefficients being expressed in terms of the matrix elements and the precomputed value of the qP wave phase velocity squared. For all iterative schemes and series, the convergence conditions are derived. The polarization vector of the wave with the square of the phase velocity is defined as the column with maximum modulus of cofactor of the matrix K-I. The group velocities vectors are computed based on the known components of the polarization vector, the directional vector, and the density-normalized stiffness coefficients. The computational accuracy is demonstrated for the standard orthorhombic model. It is shown how the perturbation theory can be applied to media with strong anisotropy. To do this, first we need to apply several QR transforms or Jacobi rotations of the Christoffel matrix, and then use the perturbation theory. This method with four Jacobi rotations is applied to the calculation of the phase velocities squared for a triclinic medium with a maximum number (32) of singularity points. In this case, the phase velocities are computed with a relative error less than 0,004 %.
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