Мотиваційні детермінанти політичної волі

Валентина Смірнова


Political will acts as a key component of the political process, the understanding of the essence of political events and the development of mechanisms for the modernization of socio-political life. The systematization of the motivational factors for implementing political will in decisions of the ruling elite and consolidation of the social outlook within the framework of the national identification process will allow establishing the essence of the determination of the political process, as well as identifying the key problems of balancing the socio-political environment and rationalizing the methodology of public policy development.

Of particular importance is the above-mentioned problem within the Ukrainian socio-political space. The complexity of modernizing management institutes, regulating channels of power-public interaction and leveling up the confrontation of social initiatives requires the urgent development of algorithms for the transformation of a political system based on the materialization of social political will and the reconciliation of public expectations with the functional guides of key political actors. A prerequisite for these progressive advances is the theoretical understanding of the processes of practical implementation of the political interests of civil society in political decisions of the ruling elite, which is possible on the basis of studying the motivation of political will as the basis for reforming the socio-political sphere and the driving force of the gradual improvement of the political arrangement of the state system.

Understanding the will as a regulator of human behavior and activity is expressed in the ability to overcome internal and external difficulties in the process of the implementation of purposeful actions and actions. It is the will to control the incentive to act and act in accordance with the purpose. Will and her motivation are the most important components of the deliberate behavior of a statesman. If the motivation is primarily responsible for initiating behavior (the formation of intentions), the will is responsible for their implementation.

Considering the essence of the concept of «political will» through the prism of the practical measurement of the political process, the extraordinary value in the context of the search for the root causes and the development of mechanisms for modernizing public administration is to prevent the negative phenomena of politics - the centralization of political power and authoritarianization of the political system. After all, the greatest potential and opportunities for the implementation of motivated political will are fixed by the political actors endowed either by democratic procedures or through the form of organization of the political regime of power preferences. As with the functioning of representative democracy of the Western model with the prevalence of the legislative institution and the presidential form of the organization of political power inherent in certain countries of the post-Soviet political space, the implementation of a functional program for modeling state policy is de facto consolidated by representatives of the authorities. In any case, the political will of a separate political actor in the implementation of national policies should not prevail over the collective initiatives of civil society. Only then, representative democracy, based on the articulation of public interests by democratically oriented politicians, will not turn into a state system of an authoritarian type, where the definition of the course of foreign and domestic policy of the country will be in the plane of individual beliefs of one or more political actors.

Expansion of the motivational paradigm of political will becomes especially relevant for defining the content of democratization processes in the post-Soviet political space, including in Ukraine. The long process of formation of Ukrainian statehood was accompanied by the arrival of a number of political forces, which were marked by different political views and a change in the constitutional matrix of the organization of political space. However, not always the political will of the country’s elite to form the course of state policy was in the field of national benchmarks of the Ukrainian public. As a result, the dissonance of the political will of the authorities and public institutions has led to political activation of the public and reformatting political power on the basis of popular will. The coincidence of various factors of a subjective and objective nature put the Ukrainian state in front of the choice of a vector for further political development. Challenges are not only in the field of consolidation of public landmarks, but also in rationalizing the administrative and management system and improving the program of political actions of the ruling elite.

So, as a general conclusion, we note the following. Whatever the active role played by the will in the activity of a statesman, one can not completely deny that it is determined by a set of objective conditions and subjective factors, the material relations in which a person is. Will, as a driving force, is the concentration of energy that the subject receives from society, a form of manifestation of political activity, which includes the political consciousness and behavior of the subject of politics, and is directed, first of all, to the realization of interests and needs, related to the achievement of power, its maintenance, strengthening and use. An essential characteristic of political will is the ability of a political entity, through the appropriate volitional effort, to consistently pursue its goals and objectives in the field of political life, which involves the development, clear and clear articulation of political requirements and programs, the ability to adjust its goals and actions in relation to certain circumstances. The main motivational factors and at the same time the semantic core of the realization of political will are political values and the installation of social and individual consciousness, the political and legal culture of the subject of political activity. Volitional efforts can be related to biologically determined predispositions of the individual. Along with this, the motivation of political leaders in resolving political problems by volitional efforts is often caused by external factors, which indicates a significant reduction in their role of internal moral control. External motives can drive a policy maker in favor of a solution that will bring immediate benefits, but its long-term consequences will be negative. Therefore, when making decisions, one must always take into account the voice of conscience and think about how one or another solution will affect other people. Ideally, volitional activity of subjects of political activity should be limited not only to moral values, but also to the corresponding rules and norms. Only in this case, it will meet the idea of achieving the public good.

Ключові слова

political will; political responsibility; collective political will; individual political will; political compromise; arbitrary rule; unpopular political decisions; voluntarism; freedom of will

Повний текст:


Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ

  1. Вико Дж. Основания Новой науки об общей природе наций / пер. с итал. А. А. Губера. Київ: Вид-во «REFLbook»–«ИСА», 1994. 656 с.
  2. Макиавелли Н. Государь. Сочинения. Харьков: Изд-во «Фолио», 2001. 656 с.
  3. Вебер М. Избранные произведения. Москва: Прогресс, 1990. 808 с.
  4. Парето В. Компендиум по общей социологии. Москва: Издательский Дом ГУ ВШЭ, 2008. 511 с.
  5. Леонтьев А. И. Психология воли. Вестник Московского университета. Серия 14: «Психология». 1993. № 2. С. 3–14.
  6. Крылова М. О. Волевой компонент в структуре личностной беспомощности. Личность в меняющемся мире: здоровье, адаптация, развитие: электронный журнал. 2014. № 3. URL: www.humjournal.rzgmuru (дата звернення: 07.04.2018).
  7. Варзар І. Держава і народ-етнос у політологічному дискурсі. Із контекстів минулих літ. Вибране в концептуальних і мемуарних вимірах. Київ: Вид-во «ФАДА-Лтд», 2003. Кн. 1. 593 с.
  8. Узнадзе Д. Н. Психологические исследования: монография. Москва: Наука, 1966. 451 с.
  9. Иванников В. А. Психологические механизмы волевой регуляции: учеб. пособие. Санкт-Петербург: Питер, 2006. 208с.
  10. Селиванов В. И. Волевая регуляция активности личности. Психологический журнал. 1982. Т. 3, № 4. С. 14–25.
  11. Miller J. Rousseau: Dreamer of Democracy. Hackett Publishing, 1984. 272 р.
  12. Linz J., Stepan A. Levels of Socio Economic Development Theory. JHU Press, 2011. 504 p.
  13. Макклелланд Д. Мотивация человека. Санкт-Петербург: Питер, 2007. 672 с.
  14. Вострокнутова Т. Ф., Вострокнутов Е. С. Мотивационные факторы политического поведения личности. Психология и педагогика: методика и проблемы практического применения. 2014. № 41. С. 7–12.
  15. Леонтьев А. Н. Потребности, мотивы и эмоции. Москва: Изд-во Московского ун-та, 1971. 40 с.
  16. Лобанова А. Мімікрійні поведінкові практики у системі державного управління: мотиваційна орієнтація. URL: http://www.kbuapa.kharkov.ua/e-book/putp/2010-34/doc/1/10.pdf (дата звернення: 14.04.2018).
  17. Северухина Д. Д. Мотивация политического участия в связи с политическими убеждениями электората. Вестник Удмуртского университета. Серия: «Философия. Социология. Педагогика». 2014. Вып. 2. С. 5–10.
  18. Иванников В. А. Воля. Национальный психологический журнал. 2010. № 1 (3). С. 97–102.
  19. Князький И. О. Калигула. Москва: Молодая гвардия, 2009. 272 с.
  20. 10 самых жестоких правителей в истории. URL: https://fishki.net/1648670-10-samyh-zhestokih-pravitelej-v istorii.html. Название с экрана (дата звернення: 09.04.2018)
  21. Соколов В. А. Реформация в Англии: Генрих VIII и Эдуард. Москва: Тип. Л. Ф. Снегирева, 1881. 546 с.
  22. Мельникова К. Доктор смерть. URL: https://lenta.ru/articles/2018/02/18/voodoo_people/ (дата звернення: 14.04.2018).
  23. Головченко В. Пол Пот. Політична енциклопедія / редкол.: Ю. Левенець (голова), Ю. Шаповал (заст. голови) та ін. Київ: Парламентське вид-во, 2011. С. 563.
  24. Скороход Ю. Каддафі Муаммар. Політична енциклопедія / редкол.  Ю. Левенець (голова), Ю. Шаповал (заст. голови) та ін. Київ: Парламентське вид-во, 2011. С. 308.
  25. Кривушин И. В. Жан-Бедель Бокасса. История Африки в биографиях. Москва: РГГУ, 2012. С. 441–447.
  26. Пригожин А. И. Патологии политического лидерства в России. Общественные науки и современность. 1996. №3. С. 23–29.
  27. Лобанова А. С. Феномен соціальної мімікрії: монографія. Київ: Ін-т соціології НАН України, 2004. 300 с.
  28. Довгерт А. С., Захватаєв В. М. Цивільний кодекс Франції (Code Civil des Français), Кодекс Наполеона (Code Napoléon). Юридична енциклопедія: в 6 т. / редкол.: Ю. С. Шемшученко (голова) та [та ін.]. Київ: Вид-во «Українська енциклопедія» ім. М. П. Бажана, 2004. Т. 6: Т–Я. С. 369–371.
  29. 10 добрих речей, які зробили найбільш злі диктатори світу. URL: https://zamitka.com/10-dobryh-rechej-yakizrobyly-sami-zli-dyktatory-svitu/ (дата звернення: 08.04.2018).
  30. Илларионов А. Чилийское экономическое чудо. URL: https://aillarionov.livejournal.com/ 445540.html (дата звернення: 15.04.2018).
  31. Чорна книга комунізму. Злочини, терор і репресії. Львів: Афіша, 2008. 707 с.
  32. Матвієнко В. Кастро Рус Фідель. Політична енциклопедія / редкол.: Ю. Левенець (голова), Ю. Шаповал (заст. голови) та ін. Київ: Парламентське вид-во, 2011. С. 319.
  33. Головченко В. І. Каддафі Муаммар. Українська дипломатична енциклопедія: у 2 т. / редкол.: Л. В. Губерський (голова) [та ін.]. Київ : Знання України, 2004. Т. 1. 760 с.
  34. Столяренко Л. Д. Психология: учебник. Санкт-Петербург: Питер, 2010. 592 с.
  35. Бурдьё П. Социология политики / сост., общ. ред. и предисл. Н. А. Шматко. Москва: Socio-Logos, 1993. 336 с.
  36. Савельев С. В. Нищета Мозга. Москва: Изда-во «ВЕДИ», 2016. 200 с.
  37. Корнієнко В. Діяч державний. Політична лексика сучасного українського політика i громадянина: енциклопедичний словник-довідник / укладач В. М. Піча. Львів: Вид-во «Магнолія–2006», 2017. С. 126.
  38. Грачев М. Н. К вопросу об определении понятий «политическая коммуникация» и «политическая информация». Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: «Политология». 2003. № 4. С. 34–42.
  39. Гайдамашко И. В., Сысоев В. В., Конюхов Н. И. Психологические детерминанты процесса принятия управленческого решения руководителем. Вестник МГОУ. Серия: «Психологические науки». 2012. № 2. С. 108–112.

Copyright (c) 2018 Валентина Смірнова

Creative Commons License
Ця робота ліцензована Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.