Реінтеграція тимчасово окупованих територій Донбасу: передумови та перспективи
Ключові слова:reintegration, disintegration, temporarily-occupied territories
The background and prospects for the reintegration of the temporarily occupied territories of Donbass (ORDLO) are analyzed. The author proves that the introduction of a full-scaled effective policy of reintegration of temporarily occupied territories is complicated by the armed phase of the ethnopolitical conflict, as well as by the lack of combatants’ desire except Ukraine to settle it within the framework of the peace negotiation process. The reintegration component of all political and legal mechanisms concerning ORDLO is pointed out.
Neither the authorities nor the scientific expert community have not yet worked out a system of clear understanding of reintegration of the temporarily occupied territories. This includes strategies, tactics, basic principles of ethnic and political integration process, which has become another challenge for internal and external ethnopolitics of Ukraine, the result of ethnopolitical conflict and loss of territory. The President calls the return of occupied territories under Ukrainian sovereignty a priority, but Ukraine has a completely different tactics of behavior to restore the sovereignty over Donbas and Crimea because the periods of reintegration of these areas are different. The status of two different areas are quite different.
ARC has been annexed - illegally incorporated into another state, it became its part in the political and economic sense. While occupied territories of Donbass has been separated - illegally left the independent state, becoming a self-proclaimed formations, which are not recognized and not supported by the international community. The situation is complicated by the fact that the armed phase of the conflict in eastern Ukraine is still going, armed clashes and shelling are continued, which significantly complicates reintegration.
But let’s look more attentively at ethnic and political situation in the Donbass, the position of the illegal DNR and LNR and evaluate prospects to return these territories to the Ukraine. Manifestations of separatism that resulted in disintegration, formation of unrecognized states supported by the Russian Federation could not occur in other regions except the Southeast of Ukraine. The all population of this region has been in constant propaganda and informational pressure from the side of Russian Federation aimed at discrediting Ukraine as a state and was properly prepared for separatist sentiments.
As part of Donetsk and Lugansk regions were occupied by Russian troops and militias and terrorist organizations DNR, LNR, they were offered a special status that takes into account the situation of the region where military operations are conducted. The Law on special status contains a number of reintegration initiatives and reconciliation aimed to facilitate, encourage the reunification process of separatizated areas of Ukraine. Terrorist organizations LNR and DNR do not appear in the Law, therefore, do not get recognition from the Ukrainian authorities in this way. The Law applies to the territory of Donbass itself controlled by armed separatists.
The question of the political settlement of ethnopolitical conflict in the Donbas and local elections remain open. The self-proclaimed states tried to set a date for local elections on their own, demanding from Ukrainian government to accept them and take law on local elections in Donbas. The date of local elections set by leaders of terrorist organizations have repeatedly transferred.
The settlement of ethnopolitical conflict in the Donbass mostly complicated by the position of the Russian side, which does not recognize its participation. The Russian side insists that the conflict will stop if Ukraine gives special status of Donbass, conducts constitutional reform. That is selective realization of the Minsk agreements - those the political commitments of Ukraine without implementation of security part concerning Russia and de-facto states.
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