Участь вітчизняних і міжнародних громадських організацій та місій на парламентських виборах в Україні у 2002-2014 рр.
Ключові слова:election, parliamentary elections, public organizations, official observers, election observation
One of the most important indicators of democratization and openness of a country is holding of free and democratic election. Conducting honest and open elections has an important meaning for creating a positive image of Ukraine on the international scene, as well as evidence that the country fulfills its obligations to protect human rights and freedoms. One of the means of controlling elections is participation of official observers and community. To a large extent from their conclusions about legitimacy of elections or, conversely, violation of the electoral law depends on the international community's recognition of legitimacy of the newly elected authorities.
Organization of election observation by public organizations is one of the most significant dimensions of democratic development around the world. Non-party election observation and control by NGOs are also aimed at ensuring the integrity of election through deterrence and disclosure of violations and falsifications, prevention and mitigation of electoral violence and provision of recommendations for improvement of electoral processes.
There are two main criteria for classification of public observers – by country of origin (internal and external (international)) and time (long-term and short-term). Internal official observers are representatives of candidates for deputies, political parties (blocs) or non-governmental organizations. International observers are observers representing foreign states and international non-governmental organizations.
Long-term observers, as a rule, are involved in monitoring electoral process at all (or most) stages, and short-term observers, as a rule, focus on monitoring activities on an election day, that is, they are primarily interested in voting and counting procedures.
The right of official observers from non- governmental organizations, from foreign states and international organizations to officially monitor the course of the election process is determined in the Law of Ukraine "On Elections of People's Deputies of Ukraine". In particular, Article 78 of the Law states that the permission to have official observers during election of deputies has only a public organization whose statutory activities include election process and its monitoring and which is registered in accordance with the procedure established by law, not later than sixty days before a voting day.
Analyzing the quantitative characteristics, activities and reports of official observers from international organizations and public organizations on monitoring the progress of the parliamentary elections in Ukraine in 2002-2014, we observe the growth of their participation in elections which promotes democracy, openness of elections and recognition of legitimacy of their results. It is worth noting that the reports of official observers noted that despite some violations of the electoral law, the elections of people's deputies of Ukraine in 2002-2014 were conducted in accordance with the national electoral law, international obligations and standards of democratic elections. The reports witnessed democratic, transparent and legitimate Ukrainian elections, ensuring basic civil rights and freedoms. Among the series of recommendations it was proposed to codify the electoral legislation of Ukraine. Recommendations provided to the election process participants following election observation campaigns in Ukraine, their consideration by state institutions in the preparation of election legislation and holding of further elections will contribute to the improvement of the electoral process.
Авторське право (c) 2017 Ольга Пахолок
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