Запровадження контрольної функції парламенту як складова політичної модернізації колишніх монархій Азії та Африки
Ключові слова:political modernization, legislative control, monarchy, imaginary constitutionalism, political responsibility
This is due to the fact that it is considered a historical anachronism, which eventually must disappear completely. Thus, in the 50's and 70's of the 20th century, there was series of coups and revolutions that led to the elimination of more than 10 monarchies. However, to date, the monarchies are more than a quarter of currently existing countries - 44. This situation is evidence of the fact that this form of government, despite its traditional character, able to adapt political present. In this context, the question naturally arises: why in some monarchies there is a political modernization, and in others it is not.
This article aims to find out the experience of introducing the control function of parliament in former monarchies, which will allow understanding the reasons for their overthrow and reveal the peculiarities of the nature of the passing of a similar process in the existing monarchies. The article is based on the establishment of constitutionally fixed forms of legislative control over the executive in such former monarchies as Afghanistan, Burundi, Ethiopia, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Laos and Libya.
First of all, we should pay attention to such elements of the constitutional status of the monarch as inviolability and irresponsibility. It`s assurance depends not only on the formal consolidation of the two above-mentioned components. An important role is played by the real place of the monarch in the system of supreme bodies of state power. Paying attention to this fact reveals the level of implementation of the control function of parliament and assesses the efficacy or fictitiousness of certain forms.
The author believes that the establishment of parliamentary control over the investigated monarchies has been fictitious and somewhat even decorative. This case was conditioned by the concentration of significant constituent powers in the hands of the head of state, which allowed exerting pressure on the parliament, which made it impossible or significantly reduced the probability of the implementation of one or another form of legislative control over the executive. The monarch actually or even legally was the head of the executive, but in none of these states, except Laos, he has no responsibility for the exercise of his powers. The result was the imbalance in the system of relations between the supreme bodies of state power in favor of the monarch. The establishment of the control function of the parliament actually led to the establishment of an imaginary constitutionalism in these states.
The political modernization of investigated monarchies stopped solely within these limits, without receiving a continuation in the form of a full-fledged institution of political responsibility of the head of state. Therefore, the superficial and intrusive nature of political transformations, caused by the centralization of power, has become the main reason for the overthrow of the monarchy in analyzing countries.
Of course, in the context of the transition of analyzing states into republic, we should take into account a number of other factors. But, first of all, the overthrow of the monarchy was due imaginary character of political modernization. The institute of monarchy remained deeply traditional and it could not function as the center of modernization processes. This is confirmed by the fact that after the military coups and revolutions in analyzing countries, the process of political modernization continued.
The failure of establishment of the parliamentary control function in the former monarchies of Asia and Africa should be taken into account by some existing monarchies, such as Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar and Kuwait. In these states, there is also the gradual establishment of imaginary constitutionalism. The imbalance in the system of relations between the supreme bodies of state power, which gives rise to the above- mentioned phenomenon, has become one of the reasons for the "Arab Spring" in all, without exception, the Arab monarchies. Therefore, the thought of the Soviet scientist S. Kaminsky about the historical condemnation of this form of state government seems indisputable. But the author believes that, first of all, the fictitious nature of the establishment of the control function of parliament in the former monarchies of Asia and Africa led to the overthrow of them. Therefore, in order to prevent the repetition of military coups and revolutions in the existing monarchies, this problem needs further investigation.
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