Політична урбаністика: концептуалізація предметного поля
Ключові слова:city, political urban studies, urbanization, government cluster
Attention is drawn to the fact that nowadays urbanization is one of the most important trends of modern society development and its consequences should not be underestimated. It is emphasized that the research and forecast of the urbanization processes requires new approaches, which are, in particular, offered by the modern interdisciplinary area of political studies – political urban studies. The need for conceptualizing this new area of political science is substantiated.
According to the author, the subjects of political urban studies are: a modern city in the globalized world; a person in the modern metropolis; features of the urban culture formation in the modern society; quality of the urban environment and the political ways of improving it; conflict and risk factors of the modern city’s development; urban political regimes; municipal electoral processes and the forms of urban population’s political activity; socio-political technologies in the city; modern city marketing; analysis of the urban communities as primary subjects of local government; city as the space of socio-political communication etc.
Author focuses on the following issues of political urban studies: what is the modern city like (and what it should be like)? Who determines the development of cities nowadays and how to make this process for efficient and transparent? What are the factors that determine the daily life of a city with its historical heritage, which includes layers of different eras nowadays? Where the hidden potential of the city can be found and how to make the city valuable for its residents, as well as recognizable to the international community (branding)? How to organize communication and cooperation between different socio-political actors who are active in the city?
Attention is drawn to the issue of cities, urbanonyms and toponyms renaming in the context of implementation of the Law of Ukraine “On the condemnation of communist and national-socialist (Nazi) totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbols”.
The heuristic potential of political urban studies is illustrated on the example of grouping the administrative structure into government clusters. Functional differences of elements of urban landscape in different historical periods are determined. It is emphasized that modern representative architecture should be directed to the widest social inclusion, provision of new opportunities for interaction of population as well as interaction between «government - society». It is underlined that there is a tendency of uniting within a single building (block) of the highest possible number of state or local governmental authorities for optimization of the management process in view on the inclusion of architecture (so-called governmental clusters).
The foreign experience of the cluster approach usage is analysed. The main formats of its application are: 1) separation of governmental cluster in structure of «old» capital, usually by having government buildings outside the historic centre or on the outskirts; 2) transposing the capital to the newly built administrative-territorial units.
European experience of governmental clusters organization on the example of successful West-European projects ‒ the government blocks in Oslo and Berlin, as well as the complex of governmental buildings Lombardy in Milan is researched. Practices of Asian cities, including Sejong in South Korea, Putrajaya in Malaysia, Chandigarh in India is studied. Attention is also paid to several projects in the former Soviet Union, including: Astana in Kazakhstan and plans to construct a new Parliamentary Centre in North West Administrative District (Mnevnikovskay plain) in Moscow. It is emphasized that intention of architectural planning is not only compact grouping of administrative buildings, but also the idea of power decentralization (Georgia). The problem of the governmental block transfer from the historical part of Kyiv is also analysed.The cluster approach is defined as the best way of organizing big cities space, especially capitals.
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