Теоретико-методологічні аспекти дослідження ненасильницького протесту в Україні
Ключові слова:Ukraine, social conflict, non-violent protest, forms of political protest, methods of political protest
Non-violent protest as a phenomenon of the second half of XX – beginning of XXI century. is political in nature and correlates with the «third wave» of democratization. It is a mass phenomenon due to the global processes of destruction of the colonial system, the disintegration of world system of socialism, the negation of authoritarianism and transition to democracy, a large group of countries in different parts of the globe.
The analysis of theoretical models, approaches, factors, nature, forms and methods of nonviolent protest, as a specific type of social conflict, the modalities for its implementation at the stage of democratic transformation in Ukraine has been shown in the article. The explanation of protest behavior is considered through the concept of relative deprivation of G. Carr, functional and conflict approaches, and the like. At the same time, to limit the understanding of the origins of social and political protest by only the phenomena of deprivation or relative deprivation means to distort its nature in favor of the subjective factors. . Actually, the unsatisfactory conditions of human existence (or perceived in her mind) are being themselves neither sufficient nor even necessary factors of protest behavior. In modern societies the protest potential of social is stipulated by the institutional, organizational, political, and sociocultural factors. The concept of «non-violent political protest» is used by the author in a wide explanation that includes both overt and subtle forms of disagreement with the policy of the authorities, for example, voting «against all». Accordingly, the specified definition differs from the category of «political resistance», which provides clear and conspicuous defiance of the existing government. The methods of political resistance are being classified after three categories: a) protest and persuasion, (b) the non-cooperation and b) intervention. In general, John Sharp has allocated 198 such methods. So non-violent protest is a complex tactic of public action, in which many techniques, a number of mechanisms of transformation, as well as certain norms of behavior are involved.
Non-violent protest and mass manifestations is a result of the accumulation of a critical mass of dissatisfaction with the existing social order. However, certain organized forms, ability to a long confrontation between the authorities and the successful decision of tasks in view, are possible only in the presence of social capital and solidarity between different social groups and strata. Social capital contains such elements of social organization as social networks, social norms and trust that create the conditions for the coordination and co-operation for the sake of the reciprocal benefit. That is, social capital is the aggregate of the actual or potential resources associated with the existing well established network of informal or more or less institutional relations of reciprocity and recognition.
The specifics of the protest activity in Ukraine is that it is a certain illogicality, when bursts of mass protests do not coincide with mass public sentiment associated with falling standards of living or dissatisfaction with the actions of the authorities. This was highlighted in 2004 when, on the eve of the political explosion that has gone down in history as the Orange revolution; none of the social services fixed the readiness of people to protest.
In a stable society the behavior of community members governs the value-normative system both directly through the role of expectations about the behavior, and indirectly, creating awareness. But in an unstable society, where the value-normative system is disrupted and a state of anomie, the behavior is primarily determined by the characteristics of the individual consciousness of its members. Crucial is affective, cognitive and moral potential of the individual characteristics of consciousness and behavior of people.
Авторське право (c) 2016 Мохамед Алі Белгасем
Ця робота ліцензується відповідно до Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Автор, який подає матеріали до друку, зберігає за собою всі авторські права та надає відповідному виданню право першої публікації, дозволяючи розповсюджувати даний матеріал із зазначенням авторства та джерела первинної публікації, а також погоджується на розміщення її електронної версії на сайті Національної бібліотеки ім. В.І. Вернадського, в міжнародних базах даних CEJSH, Index Copernicus, POL-index, Polska Bibliografia Naukowa.