DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/2312-8372.2018.141391

Study into energy efficiency of the drive of electric vehicles with an independent power supply depending on the configuration of the power source

Mykola Ostroverkhov, Danylo Trinchuk

Abstract


The electric vehicle with an independent power supply is the object of this research. At present, such vehicles are becoming more popular in the automobile market, pushing out their rivals with internal combustion engines, owing to their superior energy efficiency. The advantage over the internal combustion engine vehicles being obvious, the efficiency of electric vehicles is still considerably low in comparison to other electric devices. The problem that causes these limitations lies in the power supply – li-ion accumulator – which has high impedance.

In order to solve this disadvantage, the system with an ultracapacitor battery connected in parallel to the accumulator was considered using an example of the electric scooter drive with a squirrel-caged induction motor. Ultracapacitors have significantly lesser impedance than accumulators, thus they carry with themselves most of instant load during acceleration and braking when a power source supplies the highest currents.

Our study has shown that this configuration improves energy efficiency of the electric vehicles. Moreover, there is an optimal amount of ultracapacitor capacitance for achieving the best efficiency (the lowest energy consumption). This follows from the fact that an ultracapacitor battery is a rather heavy object; a significant increase in its capacitance leads to the increased vehicle weight and thus enhances energy consumption. An additional modernized system of supply was considered at which ultracapacitor’s charging is accelerated during vehicle stops. Such a system has made it possible to improve the results and decrease energy consumption even larger.

Compared to previous studies, this research demonstrates the importance of correct choice of ultracapacitor capacitance and supply distribution system. The existence of the optimum point has been proven; the difference of energy consumption at this point has been demonstrated in numbers.


Keywords


electric scooter drive system; li-ion accumulator; ultracapacitor and accumulator in-parallel; urban driving cycle

References


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Singh, A., Karandikar, P. B. (2016). Lead-acid battery for HEV using fuzzy controller and ultracapacitor. Biennial International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy (PESTSE), 1–5. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/pestse.2016.7516443

Pitorac, C. (2016). Using Li-Ion accumulators as traction batteries in the automotive industry. Cost reduction using ultra-capacitors. International Conference on Development and Application Systems, 212–218. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/daas.2016.7492575

Butterbach, S., Vulturescu, B., Coquery, G., Forgez, C., Friedrich, G. (2010). Design of a supercapacitor-battery storage system for a waste collection vehicle. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 1–6. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/vppc.2010.5729238

Ostroverkhov, M. Ya., Reutskyi, M. O., Trinchuk, D. Ya. (2016). Doslidzhennia robochykh rezhymiv neliniinoho elektrychnoho kola z avtonomnym dzherelom zhyvlennia v transportnykh zasobakh na prykladi pryvoda elektroskutera. Problemy enerhoresursozberezhennia v elektrotekhnichnykh systemakh. Nauka, osvita i praktyka, 1, 75–77.

Reutskyi, M. O., Trinchuk, D. Ia., Deshko, A. O. (2014). Zastosuvannia superkondensatoriv u pryvodi elektromobilia na bazi dvyhuna postiinoho strumu z nezalezhnym zbudzhenniam: proceedings. Suchasni problemy elektroenerhotekhniky ta avtomatyky. Kyiv.

Yang, Z., Shang, F., Brown, I. P., Krishnamurthy, M. (2015). Comparative Study of Interior Permanent Magnet, Induction, and Switched Reluctance Motor Drives for EV and HEV Applications. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, 1 (3), 245–254. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/tte.2015.2470092

Herrera, V. I., Gaztanga, H., Milo, A., Nieva, T., Etxeberria-Otadui, I. (2015). Optimal Operation Mode Control and Sizing of a Battery-Supercapacitor Based Tramway. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 1–6. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/vppc.2015.7352988

Herrera, V. I., Gaztanaga, H., Milo, A., Saez-de-Ibarra, A., Etxeberria-Otadui, I., Nieva, T. (2016). Optimal Energy Management and Sizing of a Battery--Supercapacitor-Based Light Rail Vehicle With a Multiobjective Approach. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 52 (4), 3367–3377. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/tia.2016.2555790


GOST Style Citations


Shydlovskyi A. K., Pavlov V. B., Popov A. V. Prymenenye superkondensatorov v avtonomnom akkumuliatornom elektrotransporte // Tekhnichna elektrodynamika. Kyiv, 2008. P. 79.

A MPC based energy management strategy for battery-supercapacitor combined energy storage system of HEV / Liu S. et. al. // 35th Chinese Control Conference. 2016. P. 8727–8731. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/chicc.2016.7554751 

Singh A., Karandikar P. B. Lead-acid battery for HEV using fuzzy controller and ultracapacitor // Biennial International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy (PESTSE). 2016. P. 1–5. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/pestse.2016.7516443 

Pitorac C. Using Li-Ion accumulators as traction batteries in the automotive industry. Cost reduction using ultra-capacitors // International Conference on Development and Application Systems. 2016. P. 212–218. doi:  http://doi.org/10.1109/daas.2016.7492575 

Design of a supercapacitor-battery storage system for a waste collection vehicle / Butterbach S. et. al. // IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference. 2010. P. 1–6. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/vppc.2010.5729238 

Ostroverkhov M. Ya., Reutskyi M. O., Trinchuk D. Ya. Doslidzhennia robochykh rezhymiv neliniinoho elektrychnoho kola z avtonomnym dzherelom zhyvlennia v transportnykh zasobakh na prykladi pryvoda elektroskutera // Problemy enerhoresursozberezhennia v elektrotekhnichnykh systemakh. Nauka, osvita i praktyka. 2016. Issue 1. P. 75–77.

Reutskyi M. O., Trinchuk D. Ia., Deshko A. O. Zastosuvannia superkondensatoriv u pryvodi elektromobilia na bazi dvyhuna postiinoho strumu z nezalezhnym zbudzhenniam: proceedings // Suchasni problemy elektroenerhotekhniky ta avtomatyky. Kyiv, 2014.

Comparative Study of Interior Permanent Magnet, Induction, and Switched Reluctance Motor Drives for EV and HEV Applications / Yang Z. et. al. // IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification. 2015. Vol. 1. Issue 3. P. 245–254. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/tte.2015.2470092 

Optimal Operation Mode Control and Sizing of a Battery-Supercapacitor Based Tramway / Herrera V. I. et. al. // IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference. 2015. P. 1–6. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/vppc.2015.7352988 

Optimal Energy Management and Sizing of a Battery--Supercapacitor-Based Light Rail Vehicle With a Multiobjective Approach / Herrera V. I. et. al. // IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 2016. Vol. 52, Issue 4. P. 3367–3377. doi: http://doi.org/10.1109/tia.2016.2555790 







Copyright (c) 2018 Mykola Ostroverkhov, Danylo Trinchuk

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ISSN (print) 2226-3780, ISSN (on-line) 2312-8372