Results of the ground penetrating radar survey in the church of St. Elias — Bohdan Khmelnytsky burial vault in Subotiv
Keywords:georadar, the Church of St. Elias, underground structure, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, dielectric permittivity, loam
Archaeogeophysical investigations in the Church of St.Elias in Subotiv (Cherkasy region, Ukraine) were conducted in the course of critical revision of the historical myth that exists around this monument, known as the burial vault of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Hetman of the Zaporozhian Cossack Army and the founder of the Ukrainian state. The aim of the study was to search for hidden structures in the walls and under a floor of the Church. The paper presents investigation that combined georadar (GPR) survey, preceded by a careful review of historical and archaeological sources, and then followed up with forward modelling and test drilling to verify and supplement the geophysical results. The measurements were carried out using VIY-3 georadars operating at 300 and 500 MHz frequency by floor of the nave and by walls of the south-west corner of the church. In the central part of the church, at the depths of 2.4 and 4.0 m, anomalies were identified from the vault and the floor of the underground structure, stretching along E-W direction, which is probably almost completely filled with soil. Drilling at the place of anomaly has confirmed presence of decompacted zone corresponding to infill. Synthetic radargrams calculated using the GprMax program, using geometric parameters of the object interpreted from the GPR data and the physical properties of soils measured by independent methods, have close simularity with those observed. No large cavities were found in the walls of the southwestern corner utilizing GPR method.
Taking into consideration the inconsistency of the chronicle version about the destruction of the grave of B. Khmelnytsky by Polish szlachta troops in 1664, the structure may appear to be his burial crypt, whose presence is evidenced in written historical sources.
Bevz, M., Vynogrodska, L., & Lukomskyi, Yu. (2019). The report on archaeological-architectural investigations in the building of (regist. No777) — the Church of St.Elias in the village of Subotiv, Chyhyryn dist., Cherkasy region, the object of the National Reservation «Chyhyryn»: in 2 volumes. Lviv (in Ukrainian).
Bobrovsky, T. (2002). The report on archaeological investigations of the remains of an underground structure in the Curch of St. Georgy of the Vydubitsky Monastery in Kyiv. Archive of the Institute of Archaeology of the NAS of Ukraine. 16 p. (in Ukrainian).
Bondar, K. M., Iyevlev, M. M., Petrauskas, A. V., Tarabukin, O. O., Khadadova, M. V. & Tsiupa, I. V. (2018). Drevlyanian`s antiquity. Archaeological investigations in Zhytomyr. Kyiv: Starodavnii svit, 188 p. (in Ukrainian).
Bondar, К., Bobrovskyi, Т., & Tsiupa, І. (2016). Efficiency of GPR Survey for Archaeological Targets Detection in the National Conservation Area of «St. Sophia of Kyiv». Geoinformatika, (4), 75—82 (in Ukrainian).
Velychko, S. V. (1991). The Chronicle. Kyiv: Dnipro, Vol. 1, 371 p. (in Ukrainian).
Vladov, M. P., & Starovojtov, A. V. (2004) An in¬tro¬duction to ground penetrating radar. — Moscow, published by MSU, 153 p. (in Russian).
Wortman, D. Ya. (2013). The Assumption Church in Nyzkinychi (XVII c.). In V. A. Smolii (Ed.), Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine (Vol. 10, P. 248). Kyiv: Naukova Dumka (in Ukrainian).
Gorishnii, P. A. (1971). Report on archeological research of the Subotiv Medieval Expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in 1971. Archive of the Institute of Archaeology of the NAS of Ukraine (in Ukrainian).
Kilesso, S. (2000). Architectural and artistic treasures of Bohdan`s region. Kyiv, 144 p. (in Ukrainian).
Krypiakevich, I. P. (1990). Bohdan Khmelnitsky. Lviv: Svit, 408 p. (in Ukrainian).
Kuksa, N. V. (2002a). To the history of Bohdan`s churches in Subotiv. Pamiatky Ukrainy, (2), 40—47 (in Ukrainian).
Kuksa, N. V. (2006). Historical burials from XVII—XVIII cent. in Subotiv. Kozats'ka skarbnytsya: Het'mans'ki chytannya, (3), 97—111 (in Ukrainian).
Kuksa, N. V. (2002b). Scientific «experiments by Gnat Yakovych Stelletskij to clarify hystorical mystery of Bohdan» in Subotiv (20th of XX cent.). Arkheologichnyy litopys Livoberezhnoi Ukrainy, (2), 156—159 (in Ukrainian).
Kuksa, N. V. (2010). St. Elias Church in Subotiv: the main stages of restoration of the monument of architecture of the middle of the XVII century. In Sivershina in the hystory of Ukraine (Is. 3, pp. 31—35) (in Ukrainian).
Kuksa, N. V., & Didenko, Ya. L. (2018). The Dnieper river region past. ХVІІІ—ХХ centuries. Cherkasy: Vertykal, 300 p. (in Ukrainian).
The Chronicle by Hadyach Colonel Grygorij Grabyanka. (1992). Kyiv: Znannya Ukrayiny, 192 p. (in Ukrainian).
Dzira, Ya. I. (ed.). (1971). The Chronicle by Samovydets. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 208 p. (in Ukrainian).
Logvyn, G. (1954). Chygyryn. Subotiv: architectural and historical study. Kyiv, 72 p. (in Ukrainian).
Novyk, M. (2006). Funeral circumstances and location of Bogdan Khmelnytsky’s tomb. Hystorical and geographical studies in Ukraine, 9, 204—210 (in Ukrainian).
On the issue of treasury allowance for the construction of a church in Subbotovka village. (1868). The State Achieves of Kyiv reion, fond 17, folder 1, file 375. Kyiv, Ukraine (in Russian).
On the recall of the Kiev Metropolitan on reconstruction and keeping of the church in Subbotivka village to preserve its antiquity. (1862—1863). The Central State Historical Achieves of Ukraine, fond 442, folder 295, file 5. Kyiv, Ukraine (in Russian).
Slukin, V. M. (1991). Architectural and hystorical underground stuctures (typology, function, genesis). Sverdlovsk, 236 p. (in Russian).
Smolij, V. A., & Stepankov, V. S. (2009). Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Socio-political portrait). Kyiv: Tempora, 679 p. (in Ukrainian).
Strilenko, Yu., & Kalashnyk, Yu. (2006). 17th Century Architectural Monument the Church of Saint Elias in the village of Subotiv in Cherkasy region. Conservation No. 777. Report on the technological examination of the materials and constructions of the church. Recommendations on the technology of work execution. Cherkasy, 19 p. (in Ukrainian).
Tatarov, A. (1888). Metric for obtaining true information about the ancient Orthodox churches of God, buildings and art objects. Subbotovo village of the Chigirinsky district of the Kiev province. Manuscript archive in the Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences, fond P-III, file 2278. Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation (in Russian).
Khomenko, R., Bondar, K., & Popov, S. (2013). New high-resolution shallow-depth multi-electrode equipment for electrical resistivity tomography). Visnyk Kyivskogo Universytetu. Geologiya, (2), 36—40 (in Ukrainian).
Chernihiv Chronicle on the new writing (1587—1725) and Kolomak petitions with the introduction article by A. Lazarevskij. (1890). Kiev, 43 p. (in Russian).
Shevchenko, N. P., & Novyk, M. M. (2006). Report on the work of the Right-bank archaeological expedition in 2005¾2006. Archive of the Institute of Archaeology of the NAS of Ukraine (in Ukrainian).
Yura, R. O. (1970). Report on the work of the Slavic Expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in the village of Subotov, Chyhyryn district of Cherkasy region in 1970. Archive of the Institute of Archaeology of the NAS of Ukraine (in Ukrainian).
Yurchenko, S. Yu. (2015). Restoration of the Church of St. Elias in Subotiv in the middle of the ХІХth century in the language of documents. In Proceedings of the Center for Monuments (Vol. 27, pp. 33¾49). http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Pcp_2015_27_5 (in Ukrainian).
Barilaro, D., Branca, C., Gresta, S., Imposa, S., Leone, A., & Majolino, D. (2007). Case study. Ground penetrating radar (G.P.R.) surveys applied to the research of crypts in San Sebastiano’s church in Catania (Sicily). Journal of Cultural Heritage, 8(1), 73—76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2006.10.003.
Gawroński, F. (1903). Wycieczki historyczno-archeologiczne po Ukrainie: Wiszenki, Borowica, Czechryń, Subotiw. Studia i szkice historyczne. Ser. 1, 1, 263—269.
Goodman, D., & Piro, S. (2013). GPR Remote Sensing in Archaeology. Springer, 233 p.
Chernov, A., Dziubacki, D., Cogoni, M., & Bă¬des¬cu, A. (2018). First conclusions about results of GPR investigations in the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Kłodzko, Poland. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 7(1), 123—128. https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-7-123-2018.
Conyers, L. B. (2017). Ground-penetrating Radar. In: A. Gilbert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Geoarchaeology (pp. 367—379). Heidelberg, London, New York: Springer.
Ivashchuk, V., Borodavka, V., Prokhorenko, V., Chu Xin, & Pavluk, A. (2019). Synchro 3. Ver. 126.96.36.199. Retrieved from http://viy.ua/download/install_VIY_SGPR.zip.
Loke, M. H. (2009). Tutorial: 2-D and 3-D electrical imaging surveys. 144 p.
Loke, M. H., & Barker, R. D. (1996). Rapid least-squares inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections by a quasi-Newton method. Geophysical Prospecting, 44, 131—152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1996.tb00142.x.
Panisova, J., Murín, I., Pašteka, R., Haličková, J., Brunčák, P., Pohánka, V., Papčo, J., & Milo, P. (2016). Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 127, 102—111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2016.02.009.
Warren, C., Giannopoulos, A., & Giannakis, I. (2016).GprMax: Open source software to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation for Ground Penetrating Radar. Computer Physics Communications, 209, 163—170. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.cpc.2016.08.020.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).