Geotectonic and geothermal conditions of the gas discharge zones in the Black Sea
Keywords:Black Sea basin, degassing, mud volcanoes, methane, isotopic composition, geothermal and geodynamic conditions
This paper presents the investigation results of geodynamic, geothermal and geochemical conditions of gas emission zones in the anoxic Black Sea Basin. Gases are manifested in the form of seeps, fountains, mud volcanoes (MV), gas hydrates and authigenic carbonates. Several thousand gas seeps and more than 80 MVs have been found in the Black Sea Basin. Most of them are associated with fault zones, abyssal fractures, shale diapir and others zones of neo-tectonic activity. Gas seeps occur mostly on the outer shelf and in the upper part of continental slope (at a depth of 50—800 m), and MVs are distinguished in the central and the most submerged part of the Western Black Sea sub-basin, as well as in the periphery troughs. Gas hydrates occur in subsurface sedimentary layers near MVs and gas seeps at a water depth of more than 700 m. Methane is the dominant component among natural gases (90—95 %) from seeps and MVs. Methane homologous, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen etc. are also present in different proportions. Breccia from MVs also contains oil components, different minerals (carbonates, sulphides, sulphates, phosphates) and dispersed particles of native metals. Based on seismic refraction data, the feeder channels of MVs penetrate to the base of Maykop sediments or to the Mesozoic basement (at a depth of 10—16 km). An analysis of the isotopic composition of methane from different sources (sediments, seeps, MVs and authigenic carbonates) has been performed. The stable carbon isotopic composition values (13C) range from -90 ‰ to -30 ‰ in methane and from -46.9 ‰ to - 8.5 ‰ in carbonates. Carbon isotopic composition in methane depends on its origin (organic or anorganic), as well as on thermodynamic conditions of its formation and migration. Changes in these conditions are accompanied by changes in chemical composition of hydrocarbon gases (from СО2 to СН4), as well as by isotopic composition fractionation of their components. These changes are possible only under mantle conditions. Heterogeneity of carbon isotopic composition in methane of the Black Sea Basin represents the variety of terms of its formation and is coherent with geotectonic zoning at the level of basement, as well as with peculiarities of geodynamic and geothermal conditions. Such coherence attests a significant (maybe even critical) role of abyssal processes in Earth degassing.
Based on comprehensive analysis of manifestation peculiarities of gas emission, chemical and isotopic composition of carbon gases, as well as of geodynamic and geothermal conditions, it can be assumed that methane in the Black Sea Basin seems to be a product of the mixture in variable proportions of methane of different origin with distinct carbon isotopic composition: microbiogenic in near bottom layer of sediments, thermogenic in sedimentary layer and abyssal, entered through the fault zones from mantle in the form of fluid-and-gas flows. Hydrocarbon formation takes place under certain thermodynamic conditions (250<T<700 °C) and in presence of primary components (C-H-O) in sufficient quantities. However, there is a lack of carbon in deplete upper mantle. In the course of Earth evolution it was transferred to the earth crust with other volatile elements. Besides, a carbon of biogenic origin was accumulated in the earth crust. Therefore, the respective geodynamic conditions that facilitate the processes of subsidence and earth crust heating (conditions of subduction and collision) are required for hydrocarbon generation. Some other peculiarities of Earth degassing, in particular enrichment of abyssal gas flows with carbon light isotope are also satisfactory explained by Earth crust recycling process.
Bazhenova, O.K., Fadeeva, N.P., Sent-Ger¬mes, M.L., Tikhomirova, E.E. (2003). Depositional environments in the Eastern Ocean Paratethys in the Oligocene-early Miocene. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. Geologiya, (6), 12—19 (in Russian).
Valyaev, B.M., & Titkov, H.A. (1985). About methane genesis in natural gases (according carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition). Doklady AN SSSR, 281(1), 146—150 (in Russian).
Valyaev, B.M., & Dremyn, I.S. (2015). Degassing of the Earth and nature of the process oil-gas accumulation (isotopic-geochemical and geodynamic aspects). Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye Mirovogo okeana, 2(40), 33—49 (in Russian).
Gerasimov, M.E., Bondarchuk, G.K., & Yudin, V.V. (2008). Geodynamic and tectonic of Azov-Black Sea region. Report of the VII International Conference «Crimea 2007»: Geodynamics, tectonic and fluid-dynamic oil and gas bearing regions. Simferopol (pp. 115—150) (in Russian).
Dmitriyevskiy, A.N., & Valyayev, B.M. (Eds.). (2011). Degassing of the Earth and genesis of Oil and Gas Fields. Moscow: GEOS, 504 p. (in Russian).
Dudik, O.M., Dudik, S.O., Ivanov, V.G., & Chupryna, I.S. (2010). Petroliterous near Kerch shelf of the Black Sea after results of complex geochemical modelling. Mineral'ni resursy Ukrayiny, (3), 41—47 (in Ukrainian).
Yegorov, V.N., Artemov, Y.G., & Gulin, S.B. (2011). Methane seeps in the Black Sea: Environment-forming and ecological role. Sevastopol: Ekosi-Gidrofizika, 404 p. (in Russian).
Ivanov, M.K., Konyuchov, A.I., & Kulchitsky, L.M. (1989). Mud volcanoes in deep part of the Black Sea. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. Geologiya, (3), 48—54 (in Russian).
Kolodiy, V.V. (Ed.). (2004). Carpathian Petroliferous Province. Lviv-Kyiv: Ukrainian Publishing Center, 388 p. (in Ukrainian).
Kokh, S.N., Novikova, S.A., Sokol, E.V., Melenevskiy, V.I., & Maslakov, N.A. (2015). The present-forming system of the Obruchev Knoll (the Bulganak mud volcano centre, the Kerch Peninsula). Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye Mirovogo okeana, (2), 123—146 (in Russian).
Kruglakova, R.P., Kruglakova, M.V., & Shevtsova, N.T. (2009). Geological-geochemical characterization of natural hydrocarbon shows in the Black Sea. Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye Mirovogo okeana, (1), 37—51 (in Russian).
Kudelskiy, A.V. (2017). Underground hydrosphere and geofluids of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal 39 (5), 3—26. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v39i5.2017.112337 (in Russian).
Kutas, R.I. (2003). Analysis of thermomechanic models of the Black Sea sedimentary evolution. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 25(2), 36—47 (in Russian).
Kutas, R.I. (2011). Geothermal sections of the Earth’s crust and the upper mantle of the Black Sea and its northern franking. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 33(6), 1—18. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v33i6.2011.116792 (in Russian).
Kutas, R.I. (2010). Geothermal conditions of the Black Sea basin and its flanking. Geo¬fi¬¬zi¬cheskiy zhurnal, 32(6), 135—158. https://doi.org/10. 24028/gzh.0203-3100.v3216.2010.117453 (in Rus¬sian).
Kutas, R.I. (2009). Method for determination of gas hydrates content in near sea bottom sediment. Patent for invention № 89104 of 25.12.2009 (in Ukrainian).
Kutas, R.I. (1996). Thermodynamic conditions of gas hydrates existence in sediments of the Black Sea. Dopovidi NAN Ukraine, (4), 103—108 (in Ukrainian).
Kutas, R.I., Kravchuk, O.P., & Bevzyuk, M.I. (2005). Gas hydrates diagnostics in near bottom sedimentary layer of the Black Sea by results of their heat conductivity in situ measurement. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 24(5), 235—244 (in Russian).
Kutas, R.I., Kravchuk, O.P., Bevzyuk, M.I., & Stakhova, L.I. (2007). Results of geothermal investigations in the northern part of the Black Sea. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 29(4), 49—65 (in Russian).
Kutas, R.I., Tsvyashchenko, V.A., Kobolev, V.P., Kravchuk, O.P., & Bevzyuk, M.I. (1996). Geothermal aspects gas hydrat formation in the Black Sea depression. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 18(3), 20—27 (in Russian).
Lein, A.Yu., Ivanov, M.V., & Pimenov, N.V. (2002). Genesis of methane in cold methane seeps in the Dniepercanyon. Doklady RAN, 387(2), 242—244 (in Russian).
Lopatin, N.V. (1971). Temperature and geological time as factors of coalification. Izvestia AN SSSR. Ser. Geologicheskaya, (3), 95—106 (in Russian).
Lukin, A.E. (2003). Isotopic-geochemical indications carbonic and hydrocarbonic degassin. Heolohichnyy zhurnal, (1), 59—73 (in Russian).
Lukin, A.E. (2008). The role of gas hydrate formation in the formation of oil and gas basins: Collection of reports of the VII International conference «Crimea-2007». Geodynamics, tectonics and fluid dynamics of oil and gas regions of Ukraine. Simferopol (pp. 16—49) (in Russian).
Lukin, A.E. (2009). Native-metal micro- and nano-inclusions in the formations of oil and gas basins — as tracers of super-deep fluids. Geo¬fizicheskiy zhurnal, 31(2), 61—92 (in Russian).
Lukin, A.E., Dontsov, V.V., & Savinyh, Yu.V. (2008). The basic factor of intensive hydrocarbons accumulation zones within South-Vietnam shelf and outlooks for such zones prospecting in the Black Sea: Collection of reports of the VII International conference «Crimea-2007». Geodynamics, tectonics and fluid dynamics of oil and gas regions of Ukraine. Simferopol (pp. 50—79) (in Russian).
Rusakov, O.M., & Kutas, R.I. (2014). Fata morgana of biogenic doctrine of hydrocarbons in the Black Sea. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 36(2), 3—17. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v36i2.2014.116113 (in Russian).
Stadnitskaya, A.N., & Belenkaya, I.Yu. (2000). Composition and origin of hydrocarbon gases and their influence on diagenetic carbonate formation (Sorokin trough, NE part of the Black Sea). In Geology of the Black and Azov Sea (pp. 155—163). Kiev: Hnosis (in Russian).
Starostenko, V.I., Rusakov, O.M., Pashkevich, I.K., Kutas, R.I., Makarenko, I.B., Legostaeva, O.V., Lebed, T.V., & Savchenko, A.S. (2015). Inhomogeneity of deep lithosphere structure of the Black Sea according to a comprehensive analysis of geophysical fields. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 37(2), 3—28. doi:org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v37i2.2015.111298 (in Russian).
Tugolesov, D.A., Gorshkov, A.S., Meysner, L.B., Solovyev, V.V., & Khakhalev, E.M. (1985). Tectonics of Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits of the Black Sea basin. Moscow: Nedra, 216 p. (in Russian).
Khryashchevskaya, O.I., Stovba, S.N., & Popadyuk, I.V. (2009). Stratigraphic basis of geological-geophysical studs of the Odessa shelf on northern part of the Black Sea: state problems and the ways of their solution. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 31(3), 17—31 (in Russian).
Shestopalov, V.M., Lukin, A.E., Zgonnik, V.A., Makarenko, A.N., Larin, N.V., & Bohuslavskiy, A.S. (2018). Essays on Earth degassing. Kiev: Ed. of the Institute of Geological Sciences of Ukraine, 632 p. (in Russian).
Shnyukov, Ye.F. (1999). Mud volcanism the Black Sea. Heolohichnyy zhurnal, (2), 38—47 (in Russian).
Shnyukov, Ye.F. (2016). Ore-forming fluid mineralization of mud volcanoes of the Azov-Black Sea region. Kiev: Logos, 196 p. (in Russian).
Shnyukov, Ye.F., Pasynkov, A.A., Kleshchen¬ko, S.A., Kobolev, V.P., Lyubitskiy, A.A., & Zakharov, Z.G. (1999). Gas springs on the floor of the Black Sea. Kiev: Hnosis, 133 p. (in Russian).
Shnyukov, Ye.F., Stupina, L.V., Paryshev, A.A., Netrebskaya, E.Ya., Maslakov, N.A., Inozemtsev, Yu.I., Kruglyakova, R.P., Andreev, V.M., & Gusakov, Yu.N. (2015). Mud volcanoes of the Black Sea (catalog). Kiev: Logos, 259 p. (in Russian).
Bahr, A., Pape, T., Bohrmann, G., Mazzini, A., Haeckek, M., Ritz, A., & Ivanov, M. (2007). Authigenic carbonate precipitates from the NE Black Sea: a mineralogical, geochemical and lipid biomarker study. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 98 (3), 677—695. doi:10.1007/s00531-007-0264-1.
Blinova, V.N., Ivanov, M.K., & Mohrmann, G. (2003). Hydrocarbon gases in deposits from mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough, North Eastern Black Sea. Geo-Marine Letters, 23(3-4), 250—257. doi: 10.1007/s00367-003-0148-8.
Bohrmann, G., Ivanov, M., Foucher, J-P., Spiess, V., Bialas, J., Greinert, J., Weinrebe, W., Abegg, F., Aloisi, G., Artemov, Y., Blinova, V., Drews, M., Heidersdorf, F., Krabbenhöft, A., Klaucke, I., Krastel, S., Leder, T., Polikarpov, I., Saburova, M., Schmal, O., Seifert, R., Volkonskaya, A., & Zillmer, M. (2003). Mud volcanoes and gas hydrates in the Black Sea: new data from Dvurechenskii and Odessa mud volcanoes. Geo-Marine Letters, 23, 239—249. doi: 10.1007/s00367-003-0157-7.
Dimitrov, L.I. (2002). Mud volcanoes — the most important pathway for degassing deeply buried sediments. Earth-Science Reviews, 59, 49—76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00069-7.
Finetti, I., Bricchi, G., Del Ben, A., Pipan, M., & Xuan, Z. (1988). Geophysical study of the Black Sea. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, XXX(117-118), 197—324.
Feseker, T., Pape, T., Wallman, K., Klapp, G., Schmidt-Schierhsm, F., & Bohrman, G. (2009). The thermal structure of the Dvurechenskii mud volcano and its implication for gas hydrate stability and eruption dynamics. Marine Geology and Petroleum, 29, 2—12. doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.01.021.
Ivanov, M.K., & Lein, A.Yu. (2006). Fractionation of stable isotopes of carbon and sulfur during biological processes in the Black Sea. In L.N. Neretin (Ed.), Past and present water column anoxia (pp. 373—417). Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, New York City: Springer.
Ivanov, M.K., Limonov, A.F., & van Weering, T.C.E. (1996). Comparative characteristics of the Black Sea and Mediterranean Ridge mud volcanoes. Marine geology, 132(1-4), 253—271. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(96)00165-X.
Holzner, C.P., McGnnis, D.F., Schubert, C.J., Kirfer, D.M., & Imboden, D.M. (2007). Noble gas anomalies related to high-intensity methane gas seeps in the Black Sea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 265(3-4), 396—409. doi: 10.1016/j. epsl.2007.10.029.
Kazmin, V.C., Schreider, A.A., & Bulychev, A.A. (2000). Early stages of evolution of the Black Sea. In Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding area (Vol. 173, pp. 235—249). Geol. Soc., London, Spec. Publ.
Krastel, S., Spiess, V., Ivanov, M.K., Weinrebe, W., Bohrmann, G., Shashkin, P. & Heidersdorf, F. (2003). Acoustic investigations of mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea. Geo-Marine Letters, 23, 230—238. doi: 10.1007/s00367-003-0143-0.
Kruglyakova, R.P., Byakov, Y.A., Kruglyakova, M.V., Chalenko, L.A. & Shevtsova, N.T. (2004). Natural oil and gas seeps on the Black Sea Floor. Geo-Marine Letters, 24, 150—162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-004-0171-4.
Kutas, R.I. (2002). Heat flow, fault zones and gas seeps in the Black Sea: VII International conference on gas in marine sediments and natural marine hydrocarbon seepage in the world oceans with applications to the Caspian Sea. Oktober 7—12, 2002. Baku: Nafta press, 111 p.
Kutas, R.I., Rusakov, O.M., & Kobolev, V.P. (2002). Gas seeps in northwestern Black Sea: geological and geophysical studies. Russian geology and geophysics, 43(7), 698—705.
Kutas, R.I., Paliy, S.I., & Rusakov, O.M. (2004). Deep faults, heat flow and gas leakage in the northern Black Sea. Geo Marine Letters, 24, 163—168. doi:10.1007/s00367-004-0172-3.
Kutas, R., & Poort, J. (2008). Regional and local geothermal conditions in the northern Black Sea. Intern. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 97, 353—363. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-007-0216-9
Mazzini, A., Ivanov, MC, Parnel, J., Stadnitskaia, A., Cronin, BT., Poludetkina, E., Mazurenko, L., & van Weering, T.C.E. (2004). Methane — related antigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterization and relation to seeping fluids. Marine Geology, 212, 153—168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2004.08.001.
Nikishin, A., Korotaev, M., Ershov, V., & Brunet, М. (2003). The Black Sea basin: tectonic history and Neogene-Quaternary rapid subsidence modeling. Sedimentary Geology, 156, 149—168. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0037-0738(02)00286-5.
Nikishin, A.M., Okay, A., Tüysüz, O., Demirer, A., Warnier, M., Amelin, N. & Petrov, E. (2014). The Black Sea basins structure and history. New model based on new deep penetration regional seismic data. Part 1: Basin structure and fill. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 59, 636—655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.08.017.
Okay, A.I., & Nikishin, A.M. (2015). Tectonic evolution of the southern margin of Lourasia in the Black Sea region. International Geology Review, 57, 1051—1076. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2015.1010609.
Okay, A.I., Şengör, A.M.C. & Görür, N. (1994). Kinematic history of the opening of the Black Sea and its effect on the surrounding regions. Geology, 22(3), 267—270. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0267:KHOTOO>2.3.CO;2.
Robinson, A.G., Rudat, J.H., Banks, C.J. & Wiles, R.L.F. (1996). Petroleum geology of the Black Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 13(2), 195—223. doi:10.1016/0264-8-172(95)00042-9.
Rusakov, O.M., & Kutas, R.I. (2018). Mantle origin of methane in the Black Sea. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 40(5), 191—207. doi:10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v40i5.2018.147482.
Rusakov, O.M., & Pashkevich, I.K. (2017). The decisive role of the crystalline crust faults in the Black Sea opening. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 39(1), 3—16. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v39i1.2017.93998.
Rusanov, I.I., Lein, A.Yu., Pimenov, N.L., Yusupov, S.K., & Ivanov, N.V. (2002). The Biogeochemical Cycle of Methane on the Northwestern Shelf of the Black Sea. Microbiology, 71(4), 479—487. doi:10.1023/A:1019862014508.
Scott, C.L., Shillington, D.J., Minshull, T.A., Edwards, R.A., Brown, P.J. & White, N.J. (2009). Wide-engle seismic data reveal extensive overpressures in the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Geophysical Journal International, 178(2), 1145—1163. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04215.x.
Sheremet, Ye., Sosson, M., Ratzon, G., Sydorenko, G., Voitsiskiy, Z., Yegorova, T., Gintov, O., & Murovskaya, F. (2016). An offshore — on land transect across the north-eastern Black Sea basin (Crimea margin): Evidence of Paleocene to Pliocene two stage compression. Tectonophysics, 688, 84—100. doi:org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.09.015.
Shillington, D.J., Scott, C.L., Minshull, T.A., Edwards, R.A., Brown, P.J., & White, N. (2009). Abrupt transition from magma-starved to magma rich rifting in the eastern Black Sea. Geology, 37, 7—10. doi:10.1130/G25302A.1.
Shillington, D.J., White, N., Minshull, T.A., Edwards, G.R.H., Jones, S.M., Edwards, R.A. & Scott, C.L. (2008). Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Black Sea: a test of depth-dependant stretching models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 265(3-4), 360—378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.10.033.
Spadini, G., Robinson, A. & Cloetingh, S. (1996). Western versus eastern Black Sea tectonic evolution: pre-rift lithospheric controls on basin formation. Tectonophysics, 266, 139—154.
Stadnitskaia, A., Ivanov, M.K., Poludetkina, E.N., Kreulen, R., & van Weering, T.C.E. (2007). Sources of hydrocarbon gases in mud volcanoes from the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea, based on molecular and carbon isotopic compositions. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 25(10), 1040—1057. doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2007.08.001.
Starostenko, V.I., Rusakov, O.M., Shnuykov, E.F., Kobolev, V.P., & Kutas, R.I. (2010). Methane in the northern Black Sea: characterization of its geomorphological and geological environments. In M. Sosson, N. Kaymakci, R. Stephenson, F. Bergerat & V. Starostenko (Eds.), Sedimentary Basin Tectonics from the Black Sea and Caucasus to the Arabian Platform (Vol. 340, pp. 57—75). Geol. Soc., London, Spec. Publ.
Waples, D.W. (1980). Time and Temperature in Petroleum Formation: Application of Lopatin’s Method to Petroleum Exploration. AAPG Bulletin, 64(6), 916—926. https://doi.org/10.1306/2F9193D2-16CE-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Woodside, J.M., Ivanov, M.K., Limonov, A.F. (1996). Neotectonics and fluid flow through seafloor sediments in the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas. Part II: Black Sea. Preliminary results of geological and geophysical investigations during the ANAXIPROBE/TTR ¾ 6 cruise of R/v Gelendzik, July¾August, UNESSO (pp. 129—226).
Zonenshain, L.P. & le Pichon, X. (1986). Deep basins of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea as remnants of Mesozoic back-arc basins. Tectonophysics, 123(1-4), 181—211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(86)90197-6.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).