An overview of seismic ground response methods over the world and their applications in Vietnam

Authors

  • G.K. Trung Faculty of Physics, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Viet Nam
  • N.D. Vinh Faculty of Physics, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Viet Nam

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.v43i2.230193

Abstract

The estimation of the impact of earthquakes on buildings and mega structures in large urban areas is of extremely importance. That is why it always gets attentions from construction planners and policy makers who are concerned about construction rules. When earthquake occurs, the vibration is transferred to sites. Although the vibration intensity is at first not too strong, the motion probably becomes stronger and lasts longer under special conditions of the local site. Two famous examples for these effects occurred in Mexico City in 1985 and in Taiwan in 1999. There are a number of approaches to this problem, such as evaluations based on seismic field observations, the microtremor method, the method using the weak motion data, the method using the strong motion data, the one-dimensional wave propagation method or the three dimensional wave propagation method with simulation etc. In this paper, we will give an overview and discuss about the advantages and the disadvantages of the methods that have been commonly applied in the world. We also present the application of these methods in studies carried out in Vietnam in general and in particular, in Hanoi city. We found that the studies for Hanoi city were mainly carried out in the western areas of Hanoi and a few positions in the urban districts. In addition, the authors only gave comments about and assessments of the shear wave velocity, and classified the ground type without a detailed map of local site effects for the entire area of Hanoi. In order to obtain a full site effects evaluation for Hanoi city, future studies should focus on the application of 1D analysis for the central area of Hanoi city and combining 1D analysis with 2D or 3D to give a better picture about the impact of local site effects. This hybrid approach is necessary in order to compare and verify the data obtained by the empirical and the analytical methods. On the other hand, many problems need to be addressed, for instance, the construction of a detailed 3D geological model for Hanoi, the calculation of the dominant periods and the amplification of the local soil conditions for the urban areas.

References

Abraham, J.R., Smerzini, C., Paolucci, R., Lai, C.G. (2016). Numerical study on basin-edge effects in the seismic response of the Gubbio valley, Central Italy. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14, 1437-1459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s 10518-016-9890-y.

Aki, K. (1988). Local Site Effects on Strong Ground Motion. In Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics II - Recent Advances in Ground-Motion Evaluation (pp. 103-155). Park City, UT, USA.

Aki, K. (1993). Local site effects on weak and strong ground motion. Tectonophysics, 218(1-3), 93-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(93)90262-I.

Aki, K. (1957). Space and time spectra of stationary stochastic waves, with special reference to microtremors. Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, 35, 415-456.

Aki, K., & Irikura, K. (1991). Characterization and mapping of earthquake shaking for seismic zonation. Proc. 4th International Conf. on Seismic Zonation, 1, 61-110.

Ambraseys, N.N. (1959). A note on the response of an elastic overburden of varying rigidity to an arbitrary ground motion. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 49, 211-220.

Anderson, J.G., Bodin, P., Brune, J.N., Prince, J., Singh, S.K., Quaas, R., & Onate, M. (1986). Strong ground motion from the Michoacan, Mexico, earthquake. Science, 233, 1043-1049. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.233.4768.1043.

Andrews, D.J. (1986). Objective determination of source parameters and similarity of earthquakes of different size. Washington DC American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph Series. 37. 259-267. https://doi.org/10.1029/GM037p0259.

Apostolidis P., Raptakis D., Roumelioti Z., & Pitilakis K. (2004). Determination of S wave velocity structure using microtremors and SPAC method applied in Thessaloniki (Greece). Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 24(1), 49-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2003.09.001.

Astroza, M., & Monge, J. (1996). Effect of site conditions on the seismic intensity. 11th World conference on earthquake engineering, Acapulco, Mexico (pp. 937-942).

Bac, T.V., Toan, D.V., Phong, L.H., & Vu, T.A. (2011). Site condition on the western urban area of Hanoi city. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 33(3B) 567-572.

Bard, P.Y. (1994). Effects of surface geology on ground motion: Recent results and remaining issues. Proc. of the 10th European conference on earthquake engineering, Vienna (Vol. 1, pp. 305-323).

Bard, P.Y. (1999). Local effects on strong ground motion: physical basis and estimation methods in view of microzoning studies. Proc. of the Advances Study Course «Seismotectonic and Microzonation techniques in Earthquake Engineering: Integrated Training in Earthquake risk reduction practices» (pp. 75-124).

Bard, P.Y., & Riepl-Thomas, J. (2000). Wave propagation in complex geological structures and their effects on strong ground motion. In: Kausel, E., Manolis, G. (Eds.), Wave Motion in Earthquake Engineering (Chapter 2, pp. 37-95). WIT Press.

Beck, J.L., & Hall, J.F. (1986). Factors contributing to the catastrophe in Mexico City during the earthquake of September 19, 1985. Geophysical Research Letters, 13, 593-596. https://doi.org/10.1029/GL013i006p00593.

Biggs, J.M. (1964). Introduction to Structural Dynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill College, 341 p.

Bielak, J., Xu, J., Ghattas, O. (1999). Earthquake ground motion and structural response in Alluvial Valleys. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 125(5), 413-423. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1999)125:5(413).

Bielak, J., Hisada, Y., Bao, H., Xu, J., & Ghattas, O. (2000). One- vs two- or three-dimensional effects in sedimentary valleys. Proc. of 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, New Zealand, February. Paper No. 2689.

Boore, D.M. (2003). Simulation of ground motion using the stochastic method. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160(3-4), 635-676. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00012553.

Borcherdt, R.D. (1970). Effects of local geology on ground motion near San Francisco Bay. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 60, 29-61.

Borcherdt, R.D. (1994). Estimates of Site-dependent response spectra for design (methodology and justification). Earthquake Spectra, 10(4), 617-653. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585791.

Borcherdt, R.D., & Gibbs, J.F. (1976). Effects of local geological conditions in the San Francisco Bay region on ground motions and the intensities of the 1906 earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 66(2), 467-500.

Borcherdt, R.D., & Glassmoyer, G. (1994). Influences of local geology on strong and weak ground motions recorded in the San Francisco Bay region and their implications for site-specific building-code provisions. In The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion (pp. 77-108). Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 1551-A.

Brady, A.G. (1966). Studies of Response to Earthquake Ground Motion. PhD Thesis. California Institute of Technology. Pasadena, California.

Calvi G.M., Pinho R., Magenes G., Bommer J.J., Restrepo-Vйlez, L.F., & Crowley H. (2006). Development of seismic vulnerability assessment methodologies over the past 30 years. Journal of Earthquake Technology, 43(3), 75-104.

Chбvez-Garcнa, F.J. (2003). Site effect in Parkway basin: Comparison between observations and 3-D modeling. Geophysical Journal International, 154(3), 633-646. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.02055.x.

Chбvez-Garcнa, F.J., Raptakis D., Makrab K., & Pitilakis K. (2000). Site effects at Euroseistest-II. Results from 2-D numerical modeling and comparison with observations. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engeeniring, 19(1), 23-39. doi: 10.1016/S0267-7261(99)00026-3.

Chбvez-Garcнa, F.J., Rodrнguez, M. & Stephenson, W.R. (2005). An alternative approach to the SPAC analysis of microtremors: exploiting stationarity of noise. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95, 277-293.

Ching, J.Y., & Glaser, S.D. (2001). 1-D Time-Domain Solution for Seismic Ground Motion Prediction. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127(1), 36-47. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(20 01)127:1(36).

Dhakal, Y.P., & Yamanaka, H. (2013). An evaluation of 3-D velocity models of the Kanto basin for long-period ground motion simulations. Journal of Seismology, 17, 1073-1102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-013-9373-4.

Dobry, R., Oweis I., & Urzua A. (1976). Simplified procedures for estimating the fundamental period of a soil profile. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 66, 1293-1321.

Duong, N.A., Nguyen, P.D., Tuan, V.M., Duan, B.V., & Linh, N.T. (2017). Seismic hazard assessment and local site effect evaluation in Hanoi, Vietnam. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 17(4B), 82-95. https://doi.org/10.15625/1859-3097/17/4B/12996.

Ebrahimian, B. (2013). Simulation of Near-Field Strong Ground Motions Using Hybrid Method. In Engineering seismology, geotechnical and structural earthquake engineering (pp. 53-77). Publisher InTech. http//dx.doi.org/10.5772/55682.

Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. (2004). European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 229 p.

Evernden, J.F., & Thomson, J.M. (1985). Predicting seismic intensities. In Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region - An earth-science perspective (pp. 151-202). U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1360.

Fдh, D., Iodice, C., Suadolc, P., & Panza, G.F. (1993). A new method for the realistic estimation of seismic ground motion in megacities: the case of Rome. Earthquake Spectra, 9, 643-668. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585735.

Fernбndez, J.A. (2007). Numerical Simulation of Earthquake Ground Motions in the Upper Mississippi Embayment. Doctoral Dissertation. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta.

Field, E.H., & Jacob, K. (1995). A comparison and test of various site response estimation techniques, including three that are non-reference-site dependent. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 85, 1127-1143.

Fiorentino, G., Nuti, C., Squeglia, N., Lavorato, D., & Stacul, S. (2018). One-Dimensional Nonlinear Seismic Response Analysis Using Strength-Controlled Constitutive Models: The Case of the Leaning Tower of Pisa’s Subsoil. Geoscien-ces, 8(7), 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070228.

Fletcher, J.B., & Wen, K.L. (2005). Strong Ground Motion in the Taipei Basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95(4), 1428-1446. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120040022.

Frankel, A., Thorne, P., & Rohay, A. (2014). Three-dimensional ground-motion simulations of earthquakes for the Hanford area. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1289, 48 p. doi: 10.3133/ofr20131289.

Groholski, D.R., Hashash, Y.M.A., Kim, B., Musgrove, M., Harmon, J., & Stewart, J. (2016). Simpli fied Model for Small-Strain Nonlinearity and Strength in 1-D Seismic Site Response Analysis. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 142(9). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001496.

Groholski, D.R., Hashash, Y.M.A., Musgrove, M., Harmon, J., & Kim, B. (2015). Evaluation of 1-D Non-linear Site Response Analysis using a General Quadratic/Hyperbolic Strength-Controlled Constitutive Model. Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Earthquake Geo-technical Engineering, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1-4 November 2015.

Gutenberg, B., & Richter, C.F. (1956). Earthqu-ake magnitude, intensity, energy, and acceleration: (Second paper). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 46(2), 105-145.

Hadjian, A.H. (2002). Fundamental period and mode shape of layered soil profiles. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22, 885-891. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0267-7261(02)00111-2.

Haney, M.M., Mikesell, T.D., van Wijk, K., & Nakahara, H. (2012). Extension of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method to mixed-component correlations of surface waves. Geophysical Journal International, 191(1), 189-206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05597.x.

Hasal, M.E., Iyisan, R., & Yamanaka, H. (2018). Basin edge effect on seismic ground response: a parametric study for Duzce basin case, Turkey. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 43(4), 2069-2081. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-017-2971-7.

Henstridge, J.D. (1979). A signal processing method for circular arrays. Geophysics, 44(2), 179-184. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1440959.

Herrera, I. (1984). Boundary Methods: An Algebraic Theory, Applicable Mathematics Series. Pitman (Advanced Publishing Program), Boston, MA.

Hill, M.P., & Rossetto, T. (2008). Do existing damage scales meet the needs of seismic loss estimation? Proc. of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (pp. 1-8).

Idriss, I.M., (1966). Response of Earth Banks during Earthquakes. Ph.D. Thesis. University of California, Berkeley.

Idriss, I.M., & Seed, H.B. (1968). Seismic res-ponse of horizontal soil layers. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 94 (SM4), 1003-1031.

International Code Council, International Building Code. (2009). Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478, USA.

Kagami, H., Okada, S., & Ohta, G. (1988). Versatile application of dense and precision seismic intensity data by an advanced questionnaire survey. Proc. of the ninth world conference on earthquake engineering Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan (pp. 937-942).

Kagami, H., Okada, S., Takai, N., & Murakami, H. (1995). Seismic zonation maps of Sapporo metropolitan area, Northern Japan, derived from dense questionnaire surveys of seismic intensity. Proc. of the 5th Intern. Conf. Seismic Zonation (pp. 1043-1050).

Kamal, & Narayan, J.P. (2015). 3-D basin-shape ratio effects on frequency content and spectral amplitudes of basin-generated surface waves and associated spatial ground motion amplification and differential ground motion. Journal of Seismology, 19(2), 293-316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-014-9466-8.

Kamalian, M., Jafari, M.K., Sohrabi-Bidar, A., Razmkhah, A., & Gatmiri, B. (2006). Time-domain two-dimensional site response analysis of

non-homogeneous topographic structures by a hybrid BE/FE method. Soil Dynamics and Eart-

hquake Engineering, 26(8), 753-765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.12.008.

Kausel, E., & Roesset, J.M. (1984). Soil Amplification; some refinements. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 3(3), 116-123. https: //doi.org/10.1016/0261-7277(84)90041-X.

Kawase, H. (2003). Site Effects on Strong Ground Motions. In W.H. Lee, H. Kanamori, P.C. Jennings, & C. Kisslinger (Eds.), International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part B (pp. 1013-1030). Academic Press.

Kramer, S.L. (1996). Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Upper Saddle River, N. J. Prentice Hall International Series in Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, 653 p.

Kudo, K., Kanno, T., Okada, H., Ozel, O., Erdik, M., Sasatani, T., Higashi, S., Takahashi, M., & Yoshida, K. (2002). Site-specific issues for strong motions during the Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake of 17 August 1999, as inferred from Array observations of microotremors and aftershocks. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 92, 448-465. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120000 812.

Langston, C.A. (1979). Structure under Mount Rainier, Washington, inferred from teleseismic body waves. Journal of Geophysical Research, 84(NB9), 4749-4762. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB084iB09p04749.

Lee, S.J., Chen H.C., Liu Q., Komatitsch D., Huang B.S., & Tromp J. (2008). Three-dimensional simulations of seismic-wave propagation in the Taipei basin with realistic topography based upon the spectralelement method. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 98, 253-264. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120070033.

Lermo, J., & Chбvez-Garcia F.J. (1993). Site effect evaluation using spectral ratios with only one station. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 83, 1574-1594.

Lermo, J., Rodriguez, M., & Singh, S.K. (1988). The Mexico Earthquake of September 19, 1985 - Natural Period of Sites in the Valley of Me-xico from Microtremor Measurements and Strong Motion Data. Earthquake Spectra, (4), 805-814. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585503.

Malla, S., Karanjit, S., Dangol, P., & Gautam, D. (2019). Seismic Performance of High-Rise Condominium Building during the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake Sequence. Buildings, 9(2), 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9020036.

Manolis, G.D., & Beskos, D.E. (1988). Boundary Element Methods in Elastodynamics. Unwin Hyman Publishing, London.

Mavroeidis, G.P., Papageorgiou, A.S. (2003). A mathematical representation of near-fault groundmotions. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 93(3), 1099-1131. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120020100.

Меdvedev, S.V. (1962). Engineering Seismology. Moscow: AkademiaNauk Press, 283 p. (in Russian).

Midorikawa, S. (1987). Prediction of isoseismal map in the Kanto plain due to hypothetical earthquake. Journal of Structural Engineering, 33B, 43-48.

Minh L.H. et al., (2017). Study of the impact of seismotectonics on the stability of Song Tranh 2 hydropower dam in North Tra My, Quang Nam province. Final report of Nation project on science research. Institute of Geophysics, Vietnam (in Vietnamese).

Mogi, K. (1995). Earthquake Prediction Research in Japan. Journal of Physics of the Earth, 43(5), 533-561. https://doi.org/10.4294/jpe1952.43.533.

Moreno Murillo, J.M. (1995). The 1985 Mexico Earthquake (pp. 5-19). Geofisica Colombiana Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Motazedian, D., Banab K., Hunter J., Sivathayalan S., Crow H., & Brooks, G. (2011). Comparison of site periods derived from different evaluation methods. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 101, 2942-2954. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120100344.

Nakamura, Y. (1989). A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface. Railway Technical Research Institute, Quarterly Repports, 30(1), 25-33.

Nakamura, Y. (1996). Real-time information systems for seismic hazards mitigation UrEDAS, HERAS and PIC. Railway Technical Research Institute, Quarterly Repports, 37(3), 112-127.

Nakamura, Y. (2019). What is the Nakamuara method? Seismological Research Letters, 90(4), 1437-1443. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180376.

Narayan J.P. (2005). Study of basin-edge effects on the ground motion characteristics using 2.5-D modeling. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 162, 273-289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s000 24-004-2600-8.

Narayan, J.P., & Sahar, D. (2014). Three-dimensional viscoelastic finite-difference code and modelling of basement focusing effects on ground motion characteristics. Computational Geosciences, 18, 1023-1047. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10596-014-9442-y.

Nguyen, P.D. (2002). Evaluation of site effect on strong ground motion. Thesis for the degree Master of Science. Hanoi University of Scien-ces (in Vietnamese).

Nguyen, P.D., & Thang, N.C. (2012). An Inves-tigation of topography effects on seismic ground motions. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 34(3), 281-286 (in Vietnamese).

Okada, H. (1998). Microtremors as an explora-tion method, geo-exploration handbook. Society of Exploration Geophysicists of Japan, 2, 203-211.

Okada, H. (2006). Theory of efficient array observations of microtremors with special reference to the SPAC method. Exploration Geophysics, 37, 73-85. https://doi.org/10.1071/eg06073.

Okada, Y. (2013). Recent progress of seismic observation networks in Japan. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 433(1), 2039. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/433/1/012039.

Olsen, K.B. (2000). Site Amplification in the Los Angeles Basin from Three-Dimensional Modeling of Ground Motion. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 90(6B), S77-S94. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120000506.

Phuong, N.H. et al. (2002). Study on the seismic risk assessment for Hanoi. Final report of scientific research funding program supported by Hanoi city government, ID: 01C-04. Institute of Geophysics, Institute of Science and Technology (in Vietnamese).

Phuong, N.H. et al. (2006). Urban earthquake risk analysis and engineering applications. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 22(3), 210-221 (in Vietnamese).

Pitarka, A., Irikura, K., Iwata, T., & Sekiguchi, H. (1998). Three dimensional simulation of the near fault ground motion for 1995, Hyogoken Nanbu (Kobe), Japan earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 88, 428-440.

Priolo, E., Pacor, F., Spallarossa, D. et al., (2019). Seismological analyses of the seismic microzonation of 138 municipalities damaged by the 2016-2017 seismic sequence in Central Italy. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-019-00652-x.

Riepl, J., Zahradnнk, J., Plicka, V., & Bard, P.Y. (2000). About the Efficiency of Numerical 1-D and 2-D Modelling of Site Effects in Basin Structures. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 157, 319-342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s000240050002.

Romгo, X., Costa, A.A., Pauperio, E., Rodrigues, H., Vicente, R., Varum, H., & Costa, A. (2013). Field observations and interpretation of the structural performance of constructions after the 11 May 2011 Lorca earthquake. Engineering Failure Analysis 34, 670-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2013.01.040.

Sбnchez-Sesma, F.J. (1987). Site Effects on Strong Ground Motion. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 6(2), 124-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/0267-7261(87)90022-4

Sбnchez-Sesma F.J., & Crouse C.B. (2015). Effects of site geology on seismic ground motion: early history. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 44(7), 1099-1113. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2503.

Schnabel, P.B., Lysmer, J., & Seed, H.B. (1972). SHAKE: A computer program for earthquake response analysis of horizontally layered sites. Report No. EERC 72-12, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Seo, K., Yamanaka, H., Kurita, K., Motoki, K., Eto, K., Terasaka, M., & Kobayashi, H. (2000). A joint research on microtremors in Fukui basin, Japan - for site effects evaluation during the 1948 Fukui (Japan) earthquake. 12 WCEE 2000, New Zealand.

Shima, E. (1962). Modifications of Seismic Waves in Superficial Layers as Verified by Comparative Observations on and Beneath the Surface. Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, Tokyo Univ. 40, 187-259.

Shima, E. (1978). Seismic microzoning map of Tokyo. Proc. of the Second International Conference on Seismic Zonation (Vol. I, pp. 433-443).

Shin, T.C., Teng, T. (2001). An Overview of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 91(5), 895-913. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120000738.

Smerzini, C., Paolucci, R., & Stupazzini, M. (2011а). Comparison of 3-D, 2-D and 1-D numerical approaches to predict long period earthquake ground motion in the Gubbio plain, Central Italy. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 9, 2007-2029. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-011-9289-8.

Smerzini, C., Paolucci, R., & Stupazzini, M. (2011b). Numerical simulations of seismic response at Gubbio basin, central Italy. TC 203 Conferences in Earthquake Engineering - 5th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (Santiago, Chile).

Son, L.T. (2003). Study on earthquake prediction and ground motion in Vietnam. Final report of the National project 2003, Institute of Geophysics, Institute of Science and Technology (in Vietnamese).

Son, L.T. (2007). Microzoning map of the Dien Bien city. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 29(1), 68-82 (in Vietnamese).

Stanko, D., Markuљić, S., Gazdek, M., Sanković, V., Slukan, I. & Ivančić, I. (2019). Assessment of the Seismic Site Amplification in the City of Ivanec (NW Part of Croatia) Using the Microtremor HVSR Method and Equivalent-Linear Site Response Analysis. Geosciences, 9(7), 312. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9070312.

Steidl, J.H., Tumarkin A.G., & Archuleta R. (1996). What is a reference site? Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 86(6), 1733-1748.

Thompson, W.T. (1950). Transmission of Elastic Waves through a Stratified Solid Medium. Journal of Applied Physics, 21, 89-93. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1699629.

Thuy, N.N. et al. (2004). Study, supplement and enhancement of the 1 : 25.000 scale seismic microzonning map of the enlarged Hanoi city, development of the ground motion characteristics database in Hanoi in accordance with the map. Final report of the scientific research project. The Hanoi Institute of Building Technology, Hanoi Construction Department (in Vietnamese).

Tramelli, A., Galluzzo, D., Del Pezzo, E., & Di Vito, M.A. (2010). A detailed study of the site eects in the volcanic area of CampiFlegrei using empirical approaches. Geophysical Journal International, 182(2), 1073-1086. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04675.x.

Trifunac M.D. (2016). Site conditions and earthquake ground motion - A review. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 90, 88-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.08.003.

Trifunac, M.D. (1971). Surface motion of a semi-cylindrical alluvial valley for incident plane SH waves. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 61(6), 1755-1770.

Trifunac, M.D., & Brady, A.G. (1975). A Study on the Duration of Strong Earthquake Ground Motion. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 65(3), 581-626.

Trung, G.K., Vinh, N.D., & Men, D.T. (2018). Soil Classification and Seismic Site Response Analysis for Some Areas in Hanoi City. VNU Journal of Science: Earth and Environmental Sciences, 34(1), 37-44.

Tuan, V.M., Vinh, N.D., Duong, N.A., Minh, N.S., Thang, N.C., & Nguyen, P.D. (2012). The H/V ratio method and its abilities in estimation of the site effects on strong ground motions in Hanoi. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 34(1), 70-75 (in Vietnamese).

Urzua, A., Dobry, R., & Christian, J. (2017). Is harmonic averaging of shear wave velocity or the simplified Rayleigh method appropriate to estimate the period of a soil profile. Earthquake Spectra, 33, 895-915. https://doi.org/10.1193/101716EQS174M.

Vietnam Building Code. (2012) TCVN 9386-2012. Design of structures for earthquake re-sistances-Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings.

Vijayendra, K.V., Nayak, S., & Prasad, S.K. (2015). An alternative method to estimate fundamental period of layered soil deposit. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 45, 192-199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-014-0121-7.

Wen, K.L., & Huang, J.Y. (2012). Dense Microtremor Survey for Site Effect Study in Taiwan. Proc. of the 15th World Conference of Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon.

Wang, S.Y., Shi Y., Jiang W.P., Yao E.L., & Miao Y. (2018). Estimating Site Fundamental Period from Shear-Wave Velocity Profile. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 108(6), 3431-3445. https://doi.org/108.10.1785/0120180103.

Whitman, R.V. (1973). Damage Probability Matrices for Prototype Buildings. Department of Civil Engineering. Research Report R73-57. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Whitman, R.V., Anagnos, T., Kircher, C.A., Lagorio, H.J., Lawson, R.S., & Schneider, P. (1997). Development of a National Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology. Earthquake Spectra, 13(4), 643-661. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585973.

Wong, H.L., & Trifunac, M.D. (1974). Surface Motion of a Semi-Elliptical Alluvial Valley for Incident Plane SH Waves. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 64(5), 1389-1408.

Wu, Y.M., Chen, C.C., Shin, T.C., Tsai, Y.B., Lee, W.H.K., & Teng, T.L. (1997). Taiwan Rapid Earthquake Information Release System. Seismological Research Letters, 68(6), 931-943. https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.68.6.931.

Wu, Y.M., Mittal, H., Huang, T.C., Yang, B.M., Jan, J.C., & Chen, S.K. (2019). Performance of a Low-Cost Earthquake Early Warning System (P-Alert) and Shake Map Production during the 2018 Mw 6.4 Hualien, Taiwan, earthquake. Seismological Research Letters, 90(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180170.

Xuyen, N.D., Thuy, N.N. et al. (1996). Database of solutions for seismic hazard mitigation in Vietnam - Part II: Earthquake zoning for Vietnam. Final report of the National project KT-ĐL 92-07, 1992-1996, Institute of Geophysics, Institute of Science and Technology (in Vietnamese).

Xuyen, N.D. et al. (2004). Study of earthquake prediction and ground motion in Vietnam. Final report of the National project 2000-2004, Institute of Geophysics, Institute of Science and Technology (in Vietnamese).

Yamanaka, H., Dravinski, M., & Kagami, H. (1993). Continuous measurements of microtremors on sediments and basement in Los Angeles, California. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 83(5), 1595-1609.

Yamin, L.E., Reyes, J.C., Rueda, R., Prada, E., Rincon, R., Herrera, C., Daza, J., & Riaсo, A.C. (2018). Practical seismic microzonation in complex geological environments. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 114, 480-494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2018.07.030.

Zhao, B., Taucer, F., & Rossetto, T. (2009). Field investigation on the performance of building structures during the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China. Engineering Structures, 31(8), 1707-1723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.02.039.

Zhao, J.X. (1996). Estimating modal parameters for a simple soft-soil site having a linear distribution of shear wave velocity with depth. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 25(2), 163-178. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199602)25:2<163::AID-EQE544>3.0.CO;2-8.

Downloads

Published

2021-06-03

How to Cite

Trung, G. ., & Vinh, N. . (2021). An overview of seismic ground response methods over the world and their applications in Vietnam. Geofizičeskij žurnal, 43(2), 131–151. https://doi.org/10.24028/gzh.v43i2.230193

Issue

Section

Articles