Properties of singular points in a special case of orthorhombic media


  • Yu.V. Roganov Tesseral Technologies Inc., Kyiv, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • A. Stovas NTNU, Trondheim, Norway, Norway
  • V.Yu. Roganov Glushkov Institute of Cybernetic of NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine



singular point, phase velocity, Christoffel matrix, orthorhombic medium


The position of singular lines for orthorhombic (ORT) media with fixed diagonal elements of the elasticity matrix cij, i=1…6 is studied under the condition that c11, c22, c33>c66>c44>c55. In this case, the off-diagonal coefficients of the elasticity matrix c12, c13, c23 are chosen so that some of the values of d12=c12+c66, d13=c13+c55, d23=c23+c44 are zero. For orthorhombic medium, where the only one of d12, d13, d23 is zero, contains only singular points in the planes of symmetry. If two or all three dij are zero, then the ORT medium contains singular lines and discrete singular points. We call such media pathological. A degenerate ORT medium with positive d12, d13, d23 has at most two singular lines, which are the intersection of a quadratic cone with a sphere. The pathological media may have up to 6 singular lines on the surface of the slowness. Singular lines for pathological media are described by more complex equations than conventional degenerate ORT models. The article proposes to using squares x, y, z of the components of the slowness vector in the equations. In a new coordinate system, equations defining singular lines for pathological media become linear or quadratic. Intersecting with the plane x+y+z =1, they define the straight lines, ellipses, or hyperbolas. If non-zero values d12, d13, d23 increase, the singular lines pass through four fixed points on the plane x+y+z =1, which makes it possible to describe the evolution of their change. Conditions are derived under which the singular curves of pathological ORT models are limiting the singular curves for degenerate ORT models with positive values of d12, d13, d23. Formulas are derived for transforming surfaces of slowness and singular lines of pathological media into the region of group velocities. The results are demonstrated with examples of pathological models obtained from the standard model of the ORT medium by changing the elasticity coefficients c12, c13, c23 so that some of the values d12, d13, d23 are zero


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How to Cite

Roganov, Y., Stovas, A., & Roganov, V. (2023). Properties of singular points in a special case of orthorhombic media. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal, 45(2).