Патріотичні дискурси України та Російської Федерації: компаративне співставлення
Ключові слова:patriotism, national identity, patriotic strategy, historical past, spiritual manipulations, spiritual mobilization, historical memory, reconciliation, forgiveness
Patriotism remains one of fundamental bases of spiritual existence of society. Attitude toward patriotism lately experiences an original renaissance. Most modern states create new strategies of the patriotic thinking purposefully. In the field of spiritual post-soviet countries also there are difficult processes of the patriotic updating. In the conditions of military opposition of Ukraine and Russian Federation there is a necessity of comparison of patriotic strategies of these countries and determination of their descriptions.
Modern Russia actively uses the selective and manipulate (subjective and fragmentary) method of integration of population on patriotic basis. Essence of this method consists in an arbitrary selection the ruling subject of advantageous historical events, facts, person. On the next stage there is their combining in a kind that cannot coincide with historical objectivity. By means of propagandist technologies these spiritual constructions are to majority of population. On such basis legitimity of the ruling mode is provided, the margin of his safety is needed.
As an example, it follows to specify on the hypertrophied laudation of fact of victory of the USSR above Hitler Germany in Great Patriotic war 1941-1945 Term «Second World War of 1939-1945»., what means the objective necessity of confession of other states and people forces that also won over fascism, - practically not used the Russian propagandists. A main merit in elimination of the «Third Reich» is added to Russia. As a result, victory over fascism purchased the sacral lines of «new-religion», worship it is been that by the obligatory moment of demonstration of civil maturity and political loyalty of the Russian citizens.
As consider in Kremlin, by means of similar «patriotic injections» a necessary imperiously-state effect is attained. On the wave of artificial presentation of spiritual energy of millions of Russians on the basis of the military thinking the conditional «gene of invincibility» is mortgaged in their consciousness. His essence is taken to the following: destroying (to put on knees) Russia is impossible, but Russia is able to win over any external force. Thus character of enemy is the inalienable element of similar patriotic ersatzes. The «unprofitable» pages of Second World War from the serve of the ruling mode are practically suppressed. In modern Russia military historical themes that are not written into the Kremlin canvas of motion of Great Patriotic war do not sound practically.
In the counterbalance of Russia, in Ukraine gradually far more difficult integration-pluralism based model of forming of patriotism that is based on necessity of integral perception of historical process, but not discrete combining, becomes firmly established him separate fragments. Individual and collective attempts to unite patriotic traditions of all periods of national creation of the state come true. In Ukraine fundamentally speech does not go about humiliation of other countries and people on the basis of the politically conditioned historical manipulations, the anymore about criminal pursuit those, who thinks differently. Ukrainians study to apply the chain of spiritual transformations, unthinkable in modern Russia: memory - oblivion - forgiveness. Lately in spiritual space of Ukraine the new going was designated fundamentally near perception of historical events that for one are the standard of patriotism, for other - by the display of treacherous. There is more balanced attitude toward a historical inheritance in the conditions of absence of living eyewitnesses of past events, understanding of Ukraine as spiritual force that assumes different interpretations of the essence.
The article of deep study in Ukrainian spiritual realities all anymore European experience becomes overcoming of antagonism situations, basis of that is different interpretation of the historical past. Speech goes about an exit from the armed conflicts (former Yugoslavia, North Ireland), overcoming of consequences of disintegration of the authoritarian modes (Centrally-East, South Europe), higher position of contemporaries above the bilateral conflicts of ХХ of century (England / Ireland, Germany / Czech Republic, Germany / Poland, Poland / Ukraine, Italy / Slovenia / Croatia, Greece / Turkey and others like that). Western scientists establish honestly, that Europe is through pierced by tracks of old intergovernmental and international conflicts. Their re-activating is always possible. As counteraction, there is a far of different mechanisms of taking into account of «sickly» past-situations and their localizations. Such mechanisms are multilateral experience and historically-searching groups, general publications, actions of reconciliation and forgiveness, special museum measures, collective operating on an international scene in the formats of EU, OSCE, other European institutes. As a result, it follows to specify on modern Europe as world continent that the previous geopolitical title of «detonator of two world wars» was able to deny purposeful efforts of the states and civil associations.
Ukraine approaches the European understanding of patriotism gradually. However to forming of strategy of patriotic education of citizens of Ukraine in modern political and cultural terms the phenomenon of «dichotomy of the Ukrainian national identity» prevents substantially. He means that in formally single state space two Ukraines are presented: а) Ukraine that broke off with a Russianimperial and soviet inheritance in an institutional, cultural, psychological, civilization (European) plan; b) Ukraine as continuation of soviet Ukraine, part of the mythologized Russian world. Between these versions of Ukraine - fundamentally different historical approaches, cultural symbols, valued orientations. Double nature of national consciousness is a main threat to existence of integral independent Ukraine that must be overcame.
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