Research of the influence of soybean germination on changes in the amino acid composition and the content of phytic acid
Keywords:protein foods, soybeans, germination process, accumulated iodine, iodine-deficient states.
Providing the population with environmentally friendly protein products of plant origin is an important task of national importance in any country. However, the native use of soybeans today is limited due to the presence of anti-nutrients in them, namely the content of phytic acid, which can increase the formation of intestinal gas. It is possible to reduce the content of phytic acid in legumes during germination. Vegetable protein, which is the main component of legumes, has the ability to accumulate inorganic trace elements, transforming them into organic forms during soaking during germination. The object of research is «Diamond» early ripe soybean variety with a protein content of 43.88 % 2018 harvest from the Agrotek collection nursery (Kyiv, Ukraine). The characteristics of the soaking solutions are with a concentration of potassium iodide of 38 g/1000 cm3 H2O, which corresponds to the
iodine content in the solutions of 41 μg/g and satisfies 1/3 % of the daily need for iodine. The grain is soaked for 48 hours. In the course of the research, the method of ion exchange chromatography, the AAA T-339m amino acid analyzer (Czech Republic) and the TM Shimadzu LC-20 chromatograph (Japan) are used. The phytic acid content is determined by the Lott method. It is established that the total amino acid content in native grain sprouted in aqueous solutions and sprouted in a solution with potassium iodide (KI) content increases from 288.8 to 443.6 and 562.6 μg/g of dry matter, respectively. The content of phytic acid is studied and it is found that its content in native grain is 29.3 g/kg, sprouted in aqueous solutions – 8.6 g/kg, sprouted in a KI solution – 3.2 g/kg. From the experiment it is possible to conclude that the process of germination of soybean grains in KI solutions affects the increase in amino acid content by almost 50 %. Due to the high hydrophilicity of the protein, the mass of germinated grains increases by 2 times. Let’s assume that the solution with KI is a synergist of phytic acid inactivation. The conducted research complex is the scientific basis for the use of this raw material in the technology of meat products for people with chronic colitis and iodine deficiency conditions.
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