Росіяни, Росія, Радянський Союз в очах опозиції ПНР в 1976‒1989 рр.


  • Tomasz Szczepański Muzeum Wojska Polskiego w Warszawie Oddział Muzeum Katyńskie, Poland

Ключові слова:

anticommunist opposition, political ideas, samizdat


The article discusses the attitudes towards Russia and Russians displayed by anti-communist opposition in Communist Poland. It also presents diverse stances concerning the Soviet Union. Certain doubts regarding the validity of identifying Russia with the USSR could be observed in samizdat publications, although this very position seemed to prevail.

The USSR, equated with Russia was seen as an enemy in the following aspects: political - as it maintained the power of the Communist Party in Poland; economic - it exploited Poland economically; religious - it fought religion and forced Marxism upon the country, as well as cultural, where it was seen as promoting primitivism and backwardness. A general conviction of hostility was strengthened by the historical memory of Soviet crimes. Issues connected with martyrdom (and even history as such) were often raised in underground publications.

Intellectuals associated with mainstream liberal democratic opposition took a slightly different stance on the subject, emphasizing that Russian tradition was neither a despotic nor a communist one. Their vision of Russia emphasized the gap between Communism and real Russia, which was to be truly represented by its democratic opposition circles. Polish opposition media attempted to publicize the activities of these groups.

The position of Russophile environments, who saw a desired political partner in Russia (identified with the USSR), have also been presented in the article. However, these were marginal views.

Біографія автора

Tomasz Szczepański, Muzeum Wojska Polskiego w Warszawie Oddział Muzeum Katyńskie

Томаш Щепанський

Катинський музей – відділ Музею Війська польського






Політична культура та ідеологія. Історична пам’ять