The consequences of phytoestrogenization of the father and the effects of phytoestrogens during puberty for male offspring




phytoestrogens, reproductive system, male offspring, spermogram, sexual behavior, fertility, sex hormones


Exposure to phytoestrogens (PE) during prepuberty and puberty can modulate the functioning of the reproductive axis, causing irreversible damage to reproductive programming.

The aim of the study was to investigate the state of the reproductive system of male offspring of adult rats that were exposed to phytoestrogens in the pubertal period of ontogenesis.

Materials and methods. The work was performed on adult male and female Wistar rats and their male offspring. In the experiment, the biological effect of PE was studied when applying a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days to the father and/or offspring of puberty age starting from the 45th day of postnatal life. Upon reaching the age of six months, male offspring of all studied groups were examined for reproductive function.

Results. The effect of estrogen-like substances on male reproductive function is manifested not only under the conditions of their intake in the critical periods of the embryonic and postnatal periods, but also, even when acting on the germ cells of parents. In male offspring, androgen secretion is disturbed, the hormonal status changes in the direction of hyperestrogenization, fertility decreases due to the reduced quality of germ cells against the background of a normal spermogram.

Conclusion. The reproductive function of sexually mature male offspring of a phytoestrogenized father who received a mixture of phytoestrogens during puberty is characterized by differences in sexual behavior, a decrease in the reproductive potential of males, which occurs due to a decrease in the share of effective fertilization, which indicates negative changes in spermatozoa, the development of which took place in conditions of absolute and relative hyperestrogeny. This indicates that phytoestrogens, as an environmental factor, have adverse consequences not only for individuals who directly use them, but also for their male offspring

Author Biographies

Nataliia Seliukova, National University of Pharmacy

Doctor of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy

Yevgenia Korenieva, State Institution “V. Danilevsky Institute for Endocrine Pathology Problems of National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine”

Doctor of Philosophy, Senior Researcher

Department of Reproductive Endocrinology

Dmytro Morozenko, National University of Pharmacy

Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Senior Researcher

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy

Yevheniia Vashchyk, National University of Pharmacy

Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Head of Department

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy

Rimma Yeromenko, National University of Pharmacy

Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of Department

Department of Clinical Laboratoty Diagnostics

Olena Matviichuk, National University of Pharmacy

PhD, Assistant

Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics

Anatolii Matviichuk, National University of Pharmacy

PhD, Associate Professor

Department Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy

Oleg Gladchenko, National University of Pharmacy

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor

Department Physiology and Pathological Physiology


  1. Viggiani, M. T., Polimeno, L., Di Leo, A., Barone, M. (2019). Phytoestrogens: Dietary Intake, Bioavailability, and Protective Mechanisms against Colorectal Neoproliferative Lesions. Nutrients, 11 (8), 1709. doi:
  2. Domínguez-López, I., Yago-Aragón, M., Salas-Huetos, A., Tresserra-Rimbau, A., Hurtado-Barroso, S. (2020). Effects of Dietary Phytoestrogens on Hormones throughout a Human Lifespan: A Review. Nutrients, 12 (8), 2456. doi:
  3. Křížová, L., Dadáková, K., Kašparovská, J., Kašparovský, T. (2019). Isoflavones. Molecules, 24 (6), 1076. doi:
  4. Hüser, S., Guth, S., Joost, H. G., Soukup, S. T., Köhrle, J., Kreienbrock, L. et al. (2018). Effects of isoflavones on breast tissue and the thyroid hormone system in humans: a comprehensive safety evaluation. Archives of Toxicology, 92 (9), 2703–2748. doi:
  5. Desmawati, D., Sulastri, D. (2019). A Phytoestrogens and Their Health Effect. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 7 (3), 495–499. doi:
  6. Bilancio, A., Migliaccio, A. (2014). Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Assay in Breast Cancer Cell Extracts. Methods in Molecular Biology, 145–153. doi:
  7. Di Donato, M., Giovannelli, P., Cernera, G., Di Santi, A., Marino, I., Bilancio, A. et al. (2015). Non-Genomic Androgen Action Regulates Proliferative/Migratory Signaling in Stromal Cells. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5. doi:
  8. Autrup, H., Barile, F. A., Berry, S. C., Blaauboer, B. J., Boobis, A., Bolt, H. et al. (2020). Human exposure to synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (S-EDCs) is generally negligible as compared to natural compounds with higher or comparable endocrine activity: how to evaluate the risk of the S-EDCs? Archives of Toxicology, 94 (7), 2549–2557. doi:
  9. Markaverich, B. M., Webb, B., Densmore, C. L., Gregory, R. R. (1995). Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103 (6), 574–581. doi:
  10. Bennetts, H. W., Uuderwood, E. J., Shier, F. L. (1946). A specific breeding problem of sheep on subterranean clover pastures in Western Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 22 (1), 2–12. doi:
  11. Duncan, A. M., Underhill, K. E. W., Xu, X., LaValleur, J., Phipps, W. R., Kurzer, M. S. (1999). Modest Hormonal Effects of Soy Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 84 (10), 3479–3484. doi:
  12. Verkasalo, P. K., Appleby, P. N., Davey, G. K., Key, T. J. (2001). Soy Milk Intake and Plasma Sex Hormones: A Cross-Sectional Study in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women (EPIC-Oxford). Nutrition and Cancer, 40 (2), 79–86. doi:
  13. Lauretta, R., Sansone, A., Sansone, M., Romanelli, F., Appetecchia, M. (2019). Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: Effects on Endocrine Glands. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 10. doi:
  14. Tang, Z.-R., Xu, X.-L., Deng, S.-L., Lian, Z.-X., Yu, K. (2020). Oestrogenic Endocrine Disruptors in the Placenta and the Fetus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21 (4), 1519. doi:
  15. Safi-Stibler, S., Gabory, A. (2020). Epigenetics and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Parental environment signalling to the epigenome, critical time windows and sculpting the adult phenotype. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 97, 172–180. doi:
  16. Rattan, S., Flaws, J. A. (2019). The epigenetic impacts of endocrine disruptors on female reproduction across generations†. Biology of Reproduction, 101 (3), 635–644. doi:
  17. Jazwiec, P. A., Sloboda, D. M. (2019). Nutritional adversity, sex and reproduction: 30 years of DOHaD and what have we learned? Journal of Endocrinology, 242 (1), T51–T68. doi:
  18. Jefferson, W. N., Doerge, D., Padilla-Banks, E., Woodling, K. A., Kissling, G. E., Newbold, R. (2009). Oral Exposure to Genistin, the Glycosylated Form of Genistein, during Neonatal Life Adversely Affects the Female Reproductive System. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117 (12), 1883–1889. doi:
  19. Schug, T. T., Janesick, A., Blumberg, B., Heindel, J. J. (2011). Endocrine disrupting chemicals and disease susceptibility. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 127 (3-5), 204–215. doi:
  20. Caceres, S., Peña, L., Moyano, G., Martinez-Fernandez, L., Monsalve, B., Illera, M. J. et al. (2015). Isoflavones and their effects on the onset of puberty in male Wistar rats. Andrologia, 47 (10), 1139–1146. doi:
  21. Lanciotti, L., Cofini, M., Leonardi, A., Penta, L., Esposito, S. (2018). Up-To-Date Review About Minipuberty and Overview on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Activation in Fetal and Neonatal Life. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9. doi:
  22. Sleiman, H. K., de Oliveira, J. M., Langoni de Freitas, G. B. (2021). Isoflavones alter male and female fertility in different development windows. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 140, 111448. doi:
  23. Reznikov, O. H. (2003). Zahalni etychni pryntsypy eksperymentiv na tvarynakh. Endokrynolohiia, 8 (1), 142–145.
  24. Zapadniuk, I. P. (1983). Laboratornye zhivotnye. Razvedenie, soderzhanie, ispolzovanie v eksperimente. Kyiv: Vishcha shkola, 383.
  25. Jiang, C. X., Pan, L. J., Feng, Y., Xia, X. Y., Huang, Y. F. (2008). High-dose daidzein affects growth and development of reproductive organs in male rats. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, 14 (4), 351–355.
  26. Eustache, F., Mondon, F., Canivenc-Lavier, M. C. et al. (2009). Khronichnyi diietychnyi vplyv nyzkykh doz sumishi henisteinu ta vinklozolinu zminiuie reproduktyvnu vis, transkryptom yaiechka ta fertylnist. Perspektyva zdorovia navkolyshnoho seredovyshcha, 117, 1272–1279.
  27. Patisaul, H. B. (2016). Endocrine disruption by dietary phyto-oestrogens: impact on dimorphic sexual systems and behaviours. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76 (2), 130–144. doi:
  28. Service USDoAAR (2008). Database for the Isoflavone Content of Selected Foods, Release 2.0.
  29. Godschalk, R. W. L., Janssen, M. C. M., Vanhees, K., Doorn-Khosrovani, S. B. van W. van, Schooten, F.-J. van. (2022). Maternal exposure to genistein during pregnancy and oxidative DNA damage in testes of male mouse offspring. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9. doi:
  30. Seliukova, N. Yu. (2016). Rol batka dlia rozvytku ta stanu reproduktyvnoi funktsii nashchadkiv cholovichoi stati. Nehatyvnyi vplyv fitoestroheniv (ohliad literatury ta vlasni rezultaty). Problemy endokrynnoi patolohii, 1, 71–78.




How to Cite

Seliukova, N., Korenieva, Y., Morozenko, D., Vashchyk, Y., Yeromenko, R., Matviichuk, O., Matviichuk, A., & Gladchenko, O. (2023). The consequences of phytoestrogenization of the father and the effects of phytoestrogens during puberty for male offspring. ScienceRise: Biological Science, (1(34), 12–18.



Biological research