• Ahmet Tortum
  • Hojat Nikakhtar
  • Hamid Shirmohammadi




Abstract. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of tobacco smoking as a risky behavior in driving accidents. In this study, the relationship between consumption and non-consumption of tobacco with the behavior and the information on vehicle drivers from the aspect of traffic safety has been investigated. This relationship was confirmed as a hypothesis using different statistical tests of Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U, and Kruskal–Wallis. Our review has shown that in these tests, there is a high probability of a significant relationship between tobacco smoking and the duality of driving accidents and traffic safety. The traffic safety parameters have been considered with accident status, accident type, average distance, and driving time, brake time length, brake distances, length of overtaking, stop length, maximum speed, and the high bright beam of the car's headlights. A cluster analysis has been used to classify drivers as per this relationship, which resulted in the introduction of three groups of drivers: the first cluster include non-smoker drivers who have a very low accident rate, the second cluster include drivers who do not smoke while driving, and the third cluster include drivers who tend to smoke and their car accident rate is higher. For non-smokers of the first and the second clusters, the probability of an accident type comprises collision with another vehicle, and for drivers who do smoke while driving, probability includes other types besides the following: collision with another vehicle, pedestrian accident, overtaking or exit from the road, and collision with a fixed object.

Keywords: tobacco smoking; driving accidents; Chi-square; Mann–Whitney U; Kruskal–Wallis and clustering analysis 


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