Peculiarities of the etiological spectrum of household allergens
Keywords:house dust mite, molds, sensitization, allergen-specific IgE, cross-reactivity, household allergens, Dnipro
The aim of the study was to study the range of substances that cause respiratory sensitization in adults and children living in Dnipro as of 2019.
Materials and research methods. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to study the serum of venous blood, which determined the specific IgE of up to 9 allergens that are most common in the home. Kits for quantification of allergen-specific IgE from Vitrotest Specific-IgE, Ukraine were used. Conducted allergy diagnosis for 380 people with certain features of allergy history of various types of allergies, who went to the laboratory to specify the etiological root cause of their disease.
Research results. As a result of the analysis of the received data the distribution of allergens on their prevalence among the population of Dnipro was established. The degree of hypersensitivity to each specific allergen and their ability to cross-react with each other was determined. Among the allergens of the household panel, the most dangerous were allergens of molds, which caused a sensitization reaction in 292 people, which was 76.8 % of all surveyed. The top three (in prevalence) of household allergens included: cat epithelium, which caused sensitization in 125 people (32.9 %) and Derm mite. Farinae, sensitivity to which was found in 117 patients (30.7 %). The share of inadequately strong allergopathological reactions is one third of all examined and prevails in people with sensitization to allergic agents of the household panel such as cat epithelium, Derm mite. Farinae and Derm. Pteronyssinus. Hyperractivity to fungi of the genus Candida and mold has been found in 9–12 % of people. The lowest severity of sensitization was observed in the epithelium of the dog and house dust, and low sensitivity in the reactivity structure of allergopathological reactions was observed for allergens of the epidermal group (down and feathers of poultry) and cockroaches. The development of cross-reactions took place between allergens of epidermal origin: there was a hypersensitivity to the hair and epithelium of dogs and cats (r=0.94, P˂0.01), poultry feathers and cockroaches (r=0.99, P˂0.01). This association of cross-reactions is possible, given the theory of minor and major proteins, and is due to their similarity: the similarity of the inclusion in the allergen structures of specific forms of molecules inherent in both allergic agents that may have allergy-stimulating effects.
Conclusions. Cross-linking between several types of related allergens is the best way to further investigate this issue. It makes sense to include in the laboratory study a molecular method for the determination of major and minor proteins in the case of the greatest relationship to determine not only a specific allergen as an etiological factor, but also a specific sensitizing protein that is part of them. This is of great importance for subsequent immunotherapy when the removal of only one (major) protein agent can reduce the risk of susceptibility reactions to several types of allergens
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