DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4984.2020.196346

Practices and challenges of continuous assessment in colleges of teachers’ education in the west Oromia region, Ethiopia

Teklu Tafase Olkaba, Gemachu Oli Bongase

Abstract


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the practices and challenges of continuous assessment in colleges of teachers’ education in the western Oromia region. For this study, the researchers selected three colleges teachers’ education, purposely based on job experience. The researchers selected Nekemte, Dembi Dollo and Shambo colleges teachers’ education from well, medium, lower experienced respectively. Descriptive survey design involving both qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed. 134 student-teachers and 178 college teachers were selected and participated in the study. The quantitative data was collected through the questionnaire and observation checklist and analyzed using frequency and percentage, whereas, the qualitative data interview and document analysis were analyzed using narrative form and interpretative way. The finding of the study revealed that the extent of practicing continuous assessment in class is low. The study also showed that teachers have positive perception toward continuous assessment and they accepted continuous assessment as important to improve the achievement of learners. The finding disclosed that a large class size, shortage of time, teachers’ work load, low interest of students, large instructional content, and lack of commitment among teachers as the major factors are hindering the practice of continuous assessment in colleges of teachers’ education.The researchers recommend that educational authorities and stockholders should make effort to a manageable number ofstudents’ per class, College administrators should allow teachers to cover the minimum workload than over loading above the standard, set for college of teachers’ education


Keywords


Continuous Assessment; College Students; College Teachers’ Education; Evaluation; Standardized testing

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References


Transitional Government of Ethiopia, TGE (1994). Education and Training Policy. Addis Ababa.

MoE (1994). Education and Training Policy. Addis Ababa: Educational Materials Production.

Brown, G. T. L. (2004). Teachers’ conception of assessment: implementation for policy and professional development, university of Auckland, New Zealand. Assessment Education, 11 (3), 301–318. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594042000304609

Teshome, D. (2001). Assessment of pupils’ achievement in the teaching English: Training and practice in focus. The Ethiopian Journal of Education, XXI (1), 25–40.

USAID/BEP (2006). A concise manual for developing and implementing continuous assessment in teacher education institutions and primary schools of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Academy for educational Development (AED) in consortium with Ministry of Education (MOE).

Apple, M., Shimo, E. (2004). Learners to Teacher: Portfolio Please! Perceptions of Portfolio Assessment in EFL Classroom. Available at: http://hosted.jalt.org/pansig/2004/HTML/AppleShimo.htm

Ellington, H., Earl, S. (1997). Making Effective Use of Continuous assessment and Portfolios.

Brown, S., Knight, P. (1994). Assessing Learners in Higher Education. London: Routledge Flamer. doi: http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203062036

Livingston (2001). Taking Teacher Educators Forward: Ten Steps towards Quality-A report. TEMSD: MOE.

Getinet, S. (2016). Assessment of the Implementation of Continuous Assessment: the case of METTU university. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4 (4), 534–544.

Greaney, V., Kellaghan, T. (2001). Using Assessment to Improve the Quality of Education. Paris International Institute for Educational Planning, 98.

Ertmer, P. A., Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6 (4), 50–72. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1937-8327.1993.tb00605.x

Ipaye, T. (1982). Continuous Assessment in Schools (With Some Counseling Applications. Ilorin: Ilorin University Press.

Lewis, A. C. (1997). Changing assessment, changing curriculum. Education Digest, 12–17.

Ugodulunwa, C. A. (1996). Crisis Continues Assessment Practices: Challenges for Measurement Expert. Journal of Science and Education Forum, 1 (1), 86–92.

Airasian, P.W. (1994). Classroom Assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Miller, P. H. (2005). Theories of developmental psychology. New York: Worth Publishers, 507.

Nitko, J. A. (1996). Educational Assessments. Englewood: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 487.

Madaus, Kellagan (1993). Basic Concepts of Continuous Assessment. New York: Magraw- Hill.Inc.

Paris, S. G., Lawton, T. A., Turner, J. C., Roth, J. L. (1991). A Developmental Perspective on Standardized Achievement Testing. Educational Researcher, 20 (5), 12–20. doi: http://doi.org/10.3102/0013189x020005012

Mercy, K. (2012). Assessment Problems in Zimbabwe’s Primary Schools with special reference to Gweru district schools. Zimbabwe: Open University, 360.

Kapambule, W. (2010). The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia. Education research and reviews, 5 (3), 99–107.

Takele, A. (2010). The state of continuous assessment practices in secondary schools of Oromia special Zone: Challenges and prospects. Addis Ababa, 93.

MOE (2004). Guidelines for Continuous Assessment. Ethiopia: Addis Ababa.

Puhl, C. A. (1997). Develop, Not Judge: Continuous Assessment in the ESL classroom. Forum Online, 35 (2). Available at: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ593288

Reece, I., Walker, S. (2003). Teaching, Training and Learning: A Practical Guide. Sunderland: Business Education Publishers Ltd, 438.

Muluken, A. (2006). Teachers Perception and practice of Continuous assessment in Selected Government first cycle primary school. Addis Ababa.

Harris, M. (1997). Self-assessment of language learning in formal settings. ELT Journal, 51 (1), 12–20. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/elt/51.1.12

Brown, G., Bull, J., Pendlebury, M. (1997). Assessing Students Learning in Higher Education. London: Routledge, 336. doi: http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315004914

Spandel & Stiggins (1990). Assessment and Evaluation. Evaluation.

Martin, J. (1997). Elementary Science Methods: A constructive Approach. Delmar Publishers.

Gensee, F., Upshure, A. (1996). Classroom Based Evaluation in Second Language Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 268.

Struyven, K., Dochy, F., Janssens, S. (2002). Student’s Perceptions about assessment in Higher Education. Available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00002255.htm

Hayes, D. (1997). Helping teachers to cope with large classes. ELT Journal, 51 (2), 106–116. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/elt/51.2.106

Obioma, G. (2005). Educational Assessment in the Culture of Reform Context. Paper Presented at the 31St Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) held at the Nicon Hilton Hotel. Abuja.

Tesfaye, S. (2005). Continuous Assessment in Teacher Education Programs: Sharing the Experience of Debub University. A paper presented on national workshop on continuous assessment. Addis Ababa.

Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating, conducting, and evaluating quatitative and qualitative research. Bosten: Person Education, Inc, 673.

Yin, R. K. (2011). Qualitative Research from Start to Finish. New York: The Guilford Press.

Papworth, H. (2005). A VSO CPD Advisors View of Continuous Assessment in Ethiopia. A paper Presented to the National Workshop on Continuous Assessment organized by AED/BESO. Addis Ababa.

Temesgen, S. (2017). Teachers’ Perception and Practices to wards Continuous Assessment of Mathematics Classes: The Case of Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Snnpr Region. Journal of Education and Practice, 8 (22).

Linn, R. L., Miller, M. D. (2005). Measurement and assessment in teaching. Upper Saddle River: Merrill/PrenticeHall, 550.

Argall, M. W. (2001). Ideology and the curriculum. New York: Rout! Ooge.

Berihu, A. (2016). Implementation of Continuous Assessment and Its Effectiveness in Adwa College of Teacher Education, Ethiopia. International Journal of Education, Culture and Society, 1 (1), 16–22.

Black, P., Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80 (2), 139–144.

Quansha, K. (2005). Continuous assessment hand book.

Abera, A. (2012). Continuous Assessment (Ca) Vis-À-Vis the Attainment of Major Educational Domains of Physical Education in Ethiopia. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 1 (11), 14–27.


GOST Style Citations


Transitional Government of Ethiopia, TGE // Education and Training Policy. Addis Ababa, 1994.

MoE. Education and Training Policy. Addis Ababa: Educational Materials Production, 1994.

Brown G. T. L. Teachers’ conception of assessment: implementation for policy and professional development, university of Auckland, New Zealand // Assessment Education. 2004. Vol. 11, Issue 3. P. 301–318. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594042000304609 

Teshome D. Assessment of pupils’ achievement in the teaching English: Training and practice in focus // The Ethiopian Journal of Education. 2001. Vol. XXI, Issue 1. P. 25–40.

USAID/BEP. A concise manual for developing and implementing continuous assessment in teacher education institutions and primary schools of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Academy for educational Development (AED) in consortium with Ministry of Education (MOE), 2006.

Apple M., Shimo E. Learners to Teacher: Portfolio Please! Perceptions of Portfolio Assessment in EFL Classroom, 2004. URL: http://hosted.jalt.org/pansig/2004/HTML/AppleShimo.htm

Ellington H., Earl S. Making Effective Use of Continuous assessment and Portfolios, 1997.

Brown S., Knight P. Assessing Learners in Higher Education. London: Routledge Flamer, 1994. doi: http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203062036 

Livingston. Taking Teacher Educators Forward: Ten Steps towards Quality-A report. TEMSD: MOE, 2001.

Getinet S. Assessment of the Implementation of Continuous Assessment: the case of METTU university // European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 2016. Vol. 4, Issue 4. P. 534–544.

Greaney V., Kellaghan T. Using Assessment to Improve the Quality of Education. Paris International Institute for Educational Planning, 2001. 98 p.

Ertmer P. A., Newby T. J. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 1993. Vol. 6, Issue 4. P. 50–72. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1937-8327.1993.tb00605.x 

Ipaye T. Continuous Assessment in Schools (With Some Counseling Applications. Ilorin: Ilorin University Press, 1982.

Lewis A. C. Changing assessment, changing curriculum // Education Digest, 1997. P. 12–17.

Ugodulunwa C. A. Crisis Continues Assessment Practices: Challenges for Measurement Expert // Journal of Science and Education Forum. 1996. Vol. 1, Issue 1. P. 86–92.

Airasian P.W. Classroom Assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

Miller P. H. Theories of developmental psychology. New York: Worth Publishers, 2005. 507 p.

Nitko J. A. Educational Assessments. Englewood: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1996. 487 p.

Madaus, Kellagan Basic Concepts of Continuous Assessment. New York: Magraw- Hill.Inc., 1993.

A Developmental Perspective on Standardized Achievement Testing / Paris S. G., Lawton T. A., Turner J. C., Roth J. L. // Educational Researcher. 1991. Vol. 20, Issue 5. P. 12–20. doi: http://doi.org/10.3102/0013189x020005012 

Mercy K. Assessment Problems in Zimbabwe’s Primary Schools with special reference to Gweru district schools: Doctoral Dissertation. Zimbabwe: Open University, 2012. 360 p.

Kapambule W. The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia // Education research and reviews. 2010. Vol. 5, Issue 3. P. 99–107.

Takele A. The state of continuous assessment practices in secondary schools of Oromia special Zone: Challenges and prospects. Addis Ababa, 2010. 93 p.

MOE. Guidelines for Continuous Assessment. Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, 2004.

Puhl C. A. Develop, Not Judge: Continuous Assessment in the ESL classroom // Forum Online. 1997. Vol. 35, Issue 2. URL: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ593288

Reece I., Walker S. Teaching, Training and Learning: A Practical Guide. Sunderland: Business Education Publishers Ltd, 2003. 438 p.

Muluken A. Teachers Perception and practice of Continuous assessment in Selected Government first cycle primary school: MA Thesis. Addis Ababa, 2006.

Harris M. Self-assessment of language learning in formal settings // ELT Journal. 1997. Vol. 51, Issue 1. P. 12–20. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/elt/51.1.12 

Brown G., Bull J., Pendlebury M. Assessing Students Learning in Higher Education. London: Routledge, 1997. 336 p. doi: http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315004914 

Spandel Stiggins. Assessment and Evaluation. Evaluation, 1990.

Martin J. Elementary Science Methods: A constructive Approach. Delmar Publishers, 1997.

Gensee F., Upshure A. Classroom Based Evaluation in Second Language Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 268 p.

Struyven K., Dochy F., Janssens S. Student’s Perceptions about assessment in Higher Education. 2002. URL: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00002255.htm

Hayes D. Helping teachers to cope with large classes // ELT Journal. 1997. Vol. 51, Issue 2. P. 106–116. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/elt/51.2.106 

Obioma G. Educational Assessment in the Culture of Reform Context // Paper Presented at the 31St Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) held at the Nicon Hilton Hotel. Abuja, 2005.

Tesfaye S. Continuous Assessment in Teacher Education Programs: Sharing the Experience of Debub University. A paper presented on national workshop on continuous assessment. Addis Ababa, 2005.

Creswell J. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating, conducting, and evaluating quatitative and qualitative research. Bosten: Person Education, Inc, 2012. 673 p.

Yin R. K. Qualitative Research from Start to Finish. New York: The Guilford Press, 2011.

Papworth H. A VSO CPD Advisors View of Continuous Assessment in Ethiopia. A paper Presented to the National Workshop on Continuous Assessment organized by AED/BESO. Addis Ababa, 2005.

Temesgen S. Teachers’ Perception and Practices to wards Continuous Assessment of Mathematics Classes: The Case of Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Snnpr Region // Journal of Education and Practice. 2017. Vol. 8, Issue 22.

Linn R. L., Miller M. D. Measurement and assessment in teaching. Upper Saddle River: Merrill/PrenticeHall, 2005. 550 p.

Argall M. W. Ideology and the curriculum. New York: Rout! Ooge, 2001.

Berihu A. Implementation of Continuous Assessment and Its Effectiveness in Adwa College of Teacher Education, Ethiopia // International Journal of Education, Culture and Society. 2016. Vol. 1, Issue 1. P. 16–22.

Black P., Wiliam D. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment // Phi Delta Kappan. 1998. Vol. 80, Issue 2. P. 139–144.

Quansha K. Continuous assessment hand book. 2005.

Abera A. Continuous Assessment (Ca) Vis-À-Vis the Attainment of Major Educational Domains of Physical Education in Ethiopia // International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research. 2012. Vol. 1, Issue 11. P. 14–27.







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