RECOMMENDATIONS FOR KYIV ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY COURSE TEACHING. SIGHTSEEINGS OF ANDRIIVSKYI DESCENT
This article presents issues for creation the educational course on Kyiv architectural history. Lection-excursion is the main teaching method of the course as it helps to combine scientific and visual spheres to build the holistic approach. Lections-excursions must be created on the landscape-ensemble approach, as Andriivskyi descent excursion, presented in this article.
Geographically Kyiv is an extremely compound city. The architecture is composed of specific landscapes and architectural complexes or ensembles. Education program for students should be based on the Kyiv architecture specific features.
The Andriivskyi Descent – is one of the best-known places in Kyiv. A number of the Andriivskyi Descent’s architectural sights and monuments are closely connected to the lives of prominent Kyiv citizens. In late 80s of the XX century, the Andriivskyi Descent underwent principal renovation in the architectural style of XIX century. Streetlights, stone-block pavement and house fronts has been completely reconstructed. Art studios, cafes, galleries and other places have been opened there. It is possible to say that the Andriivskyi Descent has become a typical open-air museum.
St. Andrew’s Church and M. Bulgakov Museum (located at №13 on the Andriivskyi Descent) are conceptually-emotive centers of the tour down the Andriivskyi Descent.
St. Andrew's Church, a monument of XVIII century, is the Baroque period architectural pearl of international importance. St. Andrew's Church is one of four Ukrainian attractions included into UNESCO list. The chronicles indicate that during the XI century, St. Andrew’s Monastery was situated here, instead of the church.
Placing the church on the hill makes it dominant and noticeable from everywhere. According to the chronicles, St. Andrew the First Called (I century AD) has placed the cross here, blessed the earth around and predicted the building
of the huge city with plenty of churches around. In XVIII century, the Empress Elizabeth stated her willingness to build a palace church here. St. Andrew's Church built during 1747 – 1762 and designed by the prominent architect F.-B. Rastrelli was harmoniously blended into surrounding landscapes and became one of the architectural landmarks of the city. Not only authentic architectural shapes, but also sumptuous interior, being the gorgeous pattern of church interiors of the Baroque period remained unchanged. Elegant carving art works (iconostasis, altar canopy-rotonda, pulpit), gold-plated sculptures and oil paintings of the XVIII century, created on F.-B. Rastrelli’s sketches and drawings, are extant as holistic and undamaged ensemble.
Small garden square of Ivan Kavaleridze’s sculptures and his workshop are located just below the St. Andrew's Church to the right of the street. On the opposite side of the street the house of 1840s, profitable merchant № 34, built in 1901 are attracting attention.
The Memorial Museum of Mikhail Bulgakov is located at №13. Viktor Nekrasov has once identified it as Turbiny’s house. This is the place where events of the novel "The White Guard" and the play "Days of Turbiny" took place. M. Bulgakov’s portrait sculpture is placed on the right of the house.
Majority of Kyiv residents identify the city with the Andriivskyi Descent. Here different times, events and outstanding Kyiv citizens’ fates meet. The history itself is breathing with gardens and hills.
This tour can be finished on Kontraktova Square near the Samson fountain, reconstructed in 1982. The duration of the tour will vary from one to 2 academic hours. Duration of the tour depends whether sightseers are going to visit M. Bulgakov museum, climb up the Castle Hill, visit exhibition "Museum of One Street". Lecturer can vary content and duration of the tour depending on tastes of the audience and weather conditions. The Church of the Tithe, St. Andrew Church, Pokrovksa Church and M. Bulgakov Museum are the main objects of this lecture-tour.