The protective effect of Zingiber officinale L. extract on kidney tissues and blood factors of kidney functions after the damage caused by Azathioprine




renal damage, Zingiber officinale, Azathioprine, animal model


The most commonly prescribed medication for autoimmune disorders is Azathioprine (AZA), which negatively affects renal function and tissue structure. The aim of this work was to measure the therapeutic impact of Zingiber officinale L. extract (ZOE) on improving the function and structure of AZA-induced renal damaged tissue.

Methods: 70 rats with a weight range of 200±10 g and an age of 95±5 days were chosen for this experimental study. The animals were grouped into seven groups of ten, with two groups receiving no treatment (control groups) and five groups receiving ZOE, AZA, “AZA + ZOE”, and normal saline. AZA was given intraperitoneally, and ZOE was given by gavage (i.e., nasogastric tube) for 21 days. Finally, urea, uric acid, creatinine parameters, and the diameter of some key or important parts of the kidney were measured in different animal groups.

Results: it was found that the use of AZA (50 mg/kg) increased serum urea and creatinine concentrations, blood uric acid in comparison to the group of control (P<0.05). Whereas injecting ZOE (200 mg/kg) induces a considerable decrease in the concentration of the compounds mentioned above as compared to control animals and animals given AZA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the findings revealed that AZA caused inflammation and kidney tissue destruction, while ZOE improved, restored, and recovered the affected kidney tissue.

Conclusion: according to the research findings, it can be decided that ZOE has a protective and therapeutic impact on kidney tissue owing to its strong antioxidant attributes and its ability to inhibit free radicals produced by azathioprine

Author Biographies

Saja Majeed Shareef, Al-Esraa University College

Department of Pharmacy

Raghad Abdulsalam Khaleel, Al Iraqia University

Department of Pharmacology

College of Medicine

Zinah Essam Hameed, Al-Esraa University College

Department of Pharmacy

Khulood Majid Alsaraf, Al-Esraa University College

Department of Pharmacy


  1. Daim, N. E., Al-Mayali, H. K. (2020). Effect of the rutin on azathioprine-induced toxicity in reproductive function male rats. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14 (2), 4637–4644.
  2. Schaalan, M. F., Ramadan, B. K., H. Abd Elwahab, A. (2018). Ameliorative effect of taurine-chloramine in azathioprine-induced testicular damage; a deeper insight into the mechanism of protection. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 18 (1). doi:
  3. Panda, B. K., Umarje, S., Diwan, A. (2017). Azathioprine-Induced Pancytopenia and Septic Complications: A Probable Cause of Death. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 31 (5), 510–513. doi:
  4. Dubinsky, M. C. (2004). Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: Pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2 (9), 731–743. doi:
  5. Amouoghli Tabrizi, B., Mohajeri, D., Doostar, Y., Baradaran Alizade, S., Khodadadi, A., Farajzade, F. (2009). Biochemical and pathological study of protective effect of Vitamin A in Azathioprine-induced hepatotoxicity in Rat. KAUMS Journal (FEYZ), 13 (3), 180–187.
  6. Amin, A., Hamza, A. A. (2005). Hepatoprotective effects of Hibiscus, Rosmarinus and Salvia on azathioprine-induced toxicity in rats. Life Sciences, 77 (3), 266–278. doi:
  7. Lee, A. U., Farrell, G. C. (2001). Mechanism of azathioprine-induced injury to hepatocytes: roles of glutathione depletion and mitochondrial injury. Journal of Hepatology, 35 (6), 756–764. doi:
  8. Karawya, F. S., El-Nahas, A. F. (2006). The protective effect of vitamin C on Azathioprine induced seminiferous tubular structural changes and cytogenetic toxicity in albino rats. Cancer Therapy, 4, 125–134.
  9. Godarzian, Z., Hosseini, E. (2018). Evaluating the Effect of Ginger Extract on Azathioprine-Induced Renal Failure in Mature Female Rats. Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 18 (2), 215–229. doi:
  10. Mirazi, N., Karami, Z. (2016). The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from rhizome of Zingiber officinale L. on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in male rat. KAUMS Journal (FEYZ), 20 (4), 297–305.
  11. Aimbire, F., Penna, S. C., Rodrigues, M., Rodrigues, K. C., Lopes-Martins, R. A. B., Sertié, J. A. A. (2007). Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinalis rhizomes on LPS-induced rat airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 77 (3-4), 129–138. doi:
  12. Ali, B. H., Blunden, G., Tanira, M. O., Nemmar, A. (2008). Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46 (2), 409–420. doi:
  13. Mohan, G. K., Pallavi, E., Kumar, R., Ramesh, M., Venkatesh, S. (2007). Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica Linn leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. DARU journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15 (3), 162–166.
  14. Aryaeian, N. (2016). A review of the effect of Ginger in inflammation. Rahavard Salamat Journal, 2 (1), 52–64.
  15. Maralla, S. (2013). Effect of ginger extract consumption on renal function during ethanol withdrawal induced-stress. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2 (11), 6412–6418.
  16. Khoshvaghti, A., Mard Khoshnood, M. (2015). Investigation of Zingiber powder effects on liver, kidney and pancreas indexes in rat. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, 8 (1), 63–79.
  17. Zekrizadeh, Z., Farokhy, F. (2014). The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ginger (HEG) onHistological and Biochemical Parameters of Kidney in Epileptic Rats Treated with Lamotrigin. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal, 8 (5), 54–62.
  18. Rezaei, F., Abolahzadeh Fard, A., Tagizadeh Afshari, A. (2015). Ginger hydroalcoholic extract ameliorates the alcohol-induced kidney dysfunction in rat. Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, 13 (3), 246–252.
  19. Srivastava, K. C., Mustafa, T. (1992). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders. Medical Hypotheses, 39 (4), 342–348. doi:
  20. Hosseini, S. E., Dalaeli, Z. (2016). The effect of lithium carbonate on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult female Wistar rats. Feyz, Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 19 (6), 450–456.
  21. Mirzakhani, Z., Hosseini, S. E. (2017). Effects of chamomile hydroalcoholic extract (Matricaria chamomilla) on the aborted fetuses, serum sex hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats. Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 17 (1), 22–31.
  22. Gad, S. B., Zaghloul, D. M. (2013). Beneficial effects of green tea extract on liver and kidney functions, ultrastructure, lipid profile and hematological parameters in aged male rats. Global Vet, 11 (2), 191–205.
  23. Elelaimy, I. A., Elfiky, S. A., Hassan, A. M., Ibrahim, H. M., Elsayad, R. I. (2012). Genotoxicity of anticancer drug azathioprine (Imuran): role of omega-3 (ω-3) oil as protective agent. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2 (4), 14–23. doi:
  24. Akinlolu, A., Akinola, O., Khobe, P., Obasi, K., Dada, O. (2014). Azathioprine and Methotrexate impaired the morphology and functions of the testes in adult wistar rats. Journal of Morphological Sciences, 31 (2), 75–81. doi:
  25. Johari H, Sharifi E, Delirnasab F, Hemayatkhah V, Kargar H, Nikpoor M. The effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Ginger on lead detoxification of kidney in the immature wistar rats. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2013;12:417-24.
  26. Hosseini, A., Mirazi, N. (2014). Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice. Epilepsy Research, 108 (3), 411–419. doi:
  27. Moalem, S. A., Tafazoli, M., Niapour, M. (2003). Evaluation of teratogenic effects of zingiber officinale in mice. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 6 (1), 43–52.
  28. Rahman, S., Salehin, F., Iqbal, A. (2012). Retraction Note: In Vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of young Zingiber officinale against human breast carcinoma cell lines. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12 (1). doi:
  29. Abo-Salem, O. M., Abd-Ellah, M. F., Ghonaim, M. M. (2011). Hepatoprotective activity of quercetin against acrylonitrile-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 25 (6), 386–392. doi:
  30. Abarikwu, S. (2014). Protective effect of quercetin on atrazine-induced oxidative stress in the Liver, Kidney, Brain, and Heart of adult wistar rats. Toxicology International, 21 (2), 148. doi:
  31. Zhang, Y., Gao, Z., Liu, J., Xu, Z. (2011). Protective effects of baicalin and quercetin on an iron-overloaded mouse: comparison of liver, kidney and heart tissues. Natural Product Research, 25 (12), 1150–1160. doi:
  32. Salah, S. H., Abdouh, S., Hodaf, B., Abdel, R. E. A. (2012). Effect of Zingiber Officinale on paracetamol-induced genotoxicity in male rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6 (41), 5425–5434. doi:




How to Cite

Shareef, S. M., Khaleel, R. A., Hameed, Z. E., & Alsaraf, K. M. (2021). The protective effect of Zingiber officinale L. extract on kidney tissues and blood factors of kidney functions after the damage caused by Azathioprine. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science, (4(32), 78–86.



Pharmaceutical Science