Phytochemicals profile and in-vitro antidiabetic potentials of fractionated extracts of Entada Africana and Leptadenia Hastata
Keywords:HPLC-UV detector, phytochemicals, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, acarbose, diabetes
Aim: To confirm their use in the management of diabetes and to determine the numerous phytochemicals present that may be connected to the active performance of the plants, the fractionated extracts of Leptadenia hastata and Entada africana were subjected to an in vitro experiment.
Material and methods: The plant leaves were dried, pulverized with a Sumeet CM/L 2128945 grinder, the particle size was 45.85 μm and extracted with methanol. The crude extracts were fractionated using a 30×8 cm diameter column and 60g of silica gel 60 F254 grade, using methanol as eluent and fractions were concentrated using a rotary evaporator, the fractionated extracts were run on thin layer Chromatographic plate (TLC) and their retardation factors (RF) were determined. Fractions of similar RF were pulled together and spotted again using TLC plate and the final (RF) were calculated. The crude extracts were quantified for the content of phytochemicals and the phytochemicals present in the fractionated extracts (LH1 and EA2) were identified using HPLC-UV detector. The extracts (LH1 and EA2) were tested for antidiabetic potentials using α -glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in an in-vitro antidiabetic assay.
Results: The yields of the fractionated extracts were 10.0 mg (Leptadenia hastata) and 11.5.0 mg (Entada Africana) and designated as LH1 and EA2, the RF for LH1 and EA2 were 0.75±0.01 and 0.77±0.03 respectively. The maximum amount of alkaloid was found in E. Africana (14.50±0.25 mg/g), while tannin was not found in L. Hastata. In the portion of L. Hastata (LH1), thirteen phytochemicals were discovered and out of these three were alkaloids. Thirteen phytochemicals were found in the E. Africana fraction (EA2), with eight of them being alkaloids and flavonoids. When compared to the usual acarbose, the plants' anti-diabetic properties were superior. EA2 had EC50 of 0.950.17 g/ml (α-amylase) and 0.970.41 g/ml (α-glucosidase), while LH1 had EC50 of 1.00±0.11 g/ml (α-amylase) and 0.90±0.35 g/ml (α-glucosidase). The presence of the detected phytochemicals may be linked to the active qualities of the plants' leaves.
Conclusion: The phytochemical profile of fractionated extracts classified as flavonoids and alkaloids are stated to be antidiabetic agents, and this has proved that the researched plants have antidiabetic potential
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