Acute heat trauma model in rats, gender-dependent thermoresistance, and screening of potential thermoprotectors




acute heat trauma, hyperthermia, thermoresistance, gender, glucosamine hydrochloride, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, experiment


Heat trauma (HT) is an urgent medical and social problem. Heat damage is a widespread effect of the environment on humans, driven by global warming, military conflicts, technological disasters, work in hot environments, and engagement in extreme sports and tourism.

The aim of the study: to propose a model of acute HT in rats that does not cause the death of animals, to determine the dependence of thermoresistance on gender, and to compare the effectiveness of the thermoprotective effects of a range of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), paracetamol, and glucosamine hydrochloride in this model.

Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on adult white rats of both genders. Acute HT was modelled by using a specially developed method involving heat exposure to animals at +55 °C for 30 minutes, followed by a recovery period of 60 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured every 15 minutes. The degree of hyperthermia in males and females was determined. The presence and intensity of the thermoprotective effect of glucosamine hydrochloride (G h/ch), diclofenac sodium, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), nimesulide, etoricoxib, celecoxib, and paracetamol were evaluated through intragastric administration 60 minutes before heat exposure. The results were analyzed using the STATISTICA 12.0 program.

Results: It was established that heat exposure at +55 °C for 30 minutes effectively replicates acute HT in rats without causing animal fatalities, adhering to bioethical requirements. Body temperature increases by 10-13 %, characterized as a heat stroke. Occasionally, thermoresistant animals are encountered, where the temperature increase during the first 15 minutes of exposure is less than 1 °C. These animals should not be used for further modelling of heat trauma. Male rats are more sensitive to the effect of high environmental temperatures than females, exhibiting greater hyperthermia (temperature increase of 5.03±0.39°C compared to 3.72±0.22 °C in females, p<0.01). The thermoprotective effect of glucosamine hydrochloride depends on gender, being more pronounced in males. Among the 6 tested COX inhibitors, the most significant thermoprotective effect was observed in the highly selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and the weakly selective central inhibitor paracetamol, warranting in-depth research into their impact on organ and system states following heat trauma, as well as the mechanisms of their thermoprotective action. The thermoprotective effect is not associated with selectivity towards COX (cyclooxygenase): it is not observed in the highly selective COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib and moderately selective COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide, as well as in non-selective COX inhibitors such as diclofenac sodium and aspirin, which also slows down the recovery of body temperature after heat exposure.

Conclusions: A convenient and simple model of acute HT in rats is proposed, demonstrating higher thermosensitivity and a more pronounced thermoprotective effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in males. A significant thermoprotective effect was identified in celecoxib and paracetamol, surpassing other investigated NSAIDs. The mechanism and specific features of this effect require further clarification

Author Biographies

Polina Chuykova, National University of Pharmacy

Posgraduate Student

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy

Sergii Shtrygol’, National University of Pharmacy

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy

Andrii Taran, National University of Pharmacy

PhD, Associate Professor

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy

Tetiana Yudkevych, National University of Pharmacy

Deputy Director for Research

Educational and Scientific Institute of Applied Pharmacy

Iryna Lebedinets, National University of Pharmacy


Educational and Scientific Training Laboratory of Medical and Biological Sciences

Denys Oklei, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor

Department of Surgical Diseases


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Acute heat trauma model in rats, gender-dependent thermoresistance, and screening of potential thermoprotectors




How to Cite

Chuykova, P., Shtrygol’, S., Taran, A., Yudkevych, T., Lebedinets, I., & Oklei, D. (2024). Acute heat trauma model in rats, gender-dependent thermoresistance, and screening of potential thermoprotectors. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science, (2 (48), 4–11.



Pharmaceutical Science