Intensification of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from Acorus calamus leaves




Acorus calamus leaves, phenolic compounds, extraction process, re-maceration, ultrasonic action, surfactant-mediated extraction


The aim. To determine the intensified method of extraction of phenolic compounds from Acorus calamus leaves and optimal conditions for the process.

Materials and methods. In order to develop the optimal intensified method of extraction samples were prepared in different conditions of raw materials-extractant ratio, temperature, time and multiplicity. As a raw materials spectrophotometrically pre-standardized Acorus calamus leaves were used. The extraction was carried out in a hermetically sealed ultrasonic extraction reactor PEX 1 (REUS, Contes, France). As the criteria of extraction efficiency were indicators of dry residue and total amount of flavonoids determined using methods described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. The amount of flavonoids was determined spectrophotometrically on a certified device Specord 200 (Analytik Jena, Germany).

Results. According to our research results it was found that ultrasonic action and addition of surfactant significantly improves the efficiency of the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the process were determined. Experimentally proved that the rational raw material-extractant ratio is 1:15. Comparative study of the extraction process with different temperatures showed that the highest amount of extractives is achieved at temperature 70 °C and 45 min of duration. The optimal extraction multiplicity is 3.

Conclusions. As a result of the study, the intensified extraction method for Acorus calamus leaves – re-maceration with ultrasound – was established. The conducted researches allowed to develop the method of extraction, expedient in the conditions of the modern pharmaceutical industry.

Author Biographies

Oleksiy Andryushayev, National University of Pharmacy

Postgraduate Student

Department of Industrial Technology of Drugs

Olena Ruban, National University of Pharmacy

Doctor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department

Department of Industrial Technology of Drugs

Yuliia Maslii, National University of Pharmacy

PhD, Associate Professor

Department of Industrial Technology of Drugs

Inna Rusak, National University of Pharmacy

Leading Specialist

Educational and Scientific Training Laboratory of Chemical and Technological Research


  1. Compendium on-line. Available at:
  2. Salmerón-Manzano, E., Garrido-Cardenas, J. A., Manzano-Agugliaro, F. (2020). Worldwide Research Trends on Medicinal Plants. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (10), 3376. doi:
  3. Yadav, D., Srivastava, S., Tripathi, Y. B. (2019). Acorus Calamus A Review. International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences, 6 (4), 62–67. doi:
  4. Derimedvid, L. V., Korang, L. A., Kalko, K. O., Vereitinova, V. P. (2020). Effect of Acorus calamus leaf extract on cholestasis and biliary excretion at the experimental hepatitis. Pharmacology and Drug Toxicology, 14 (2), 114–121. doi:
  5. Khan, B. M., Bakht, J. (2018). Effect of sun-drying on anti-fungal, anti-yeast and antioxidant potency of Acorus calamus, an indigenous medicinal plant. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 51 (1). doi:
  6. Babar, P. S., Deshmukh, A. V., Salunkhe, S. S., Chavan, J. J. (2020). Micropropagation, polyphenol content and biological properties of Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus): a potent medicinal and aromatic herb. Vegetos, 33 (2), 296–303. doi:
  7. Derimedved, L. V., Korang, L. A., Yudkevich, T. K. (2020). Timoleptic properties of dealcoholized extract of calamus leaves (Acorus calamus L.). Norwegian Journal of Development of the International Science, 40, 44–49.
  8. Kaushik, S., Gohain, K. (2019). Study of the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of root of acorus calamus in albino rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 12 (1), 185. doi:
  9. Cruz, E. A., Muzitano, M. F., Costa, S. S., Rossi-Bergmann B. (2012). Preventive Phytotherapy of Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions. Allergic Diseases – Highlights in the Clinic, Mechanisms and Treatment, 461–476. doi:
  10. Sharma, V., Sharma, R., Gautam, D., Kuca, K., Nepovimova, E., Martins, N. (2020). Role of Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.) in Neurological and Metabolic Disorders: Evidence from Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9 (4), 1176. doi:
  11. Abel, G. (1987). Chromosomenschädigende Wirkung von β-Asaron in menschlichen Lymphocyten. Planta Medica, 53 (3), 251–253. doi:
  12. Hasheminejad, G., Caldwell, J. (1994). Genotoxicity of the alkenylbenzenes α− and β-asarone, myristicin and elemicin as determined by the UDS assay in cultured rat hepatocytes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 32 (3), 223–231. doi:
  13. Public Statement on the use of herbal medicinal products containing asarone. European Medicines Agency Evaluation of Medicines for Human Use (2005). Doc Ref: EMEA / HMPC / 139215/2005. London.
  14. Patil, P. J., Patil, V. R. (2016). Phytochemical and Toxicological Evaluation of Acorus calamus and Argyreia speciosa Leaves Extract. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8 (3), 121–124. doi:
  15. Derzhavna Farmakopeia Ukrainy. Vol. 1 (2018). Kharkiv: Derzhavne pidpryiemstvo «Ukrainskyi naukovyi farmakopeinyi tsentr yakosti likarskykh zasobiv», 1128.
  16. Sofyan, A., Widodo, E., Natsir, H. (2017). Bioactive Component, Antioxidant Activity, and Fatty Acid Profile of Red Beewort (Acorus sp) and White Beewort (Acorus calamus). Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, 18 (3), 173–180. doi:
  17. Derymedvid, L., Korang, L., Shakina, L. (2020). Comparative cytotoxic analysis of extracts obtained from leaves and roots of sweet flag (Acorus Calamus L.) on rat bone marrow cells in vitro. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science, 1 (23), 17–22. doi:
  18. Yaremenko, M., Gontova, T., Boryak, L., Mala, O., Andryushayev, O. (2020). Determination of optimal extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from acorus calamus leaves. EUREKA: Health Sciences, 3, 63–70. doi:
  19. Đukić, D., Mašković, P., Vesković Moračanin, S., Kurćubić, V., Milijašević, M., Babić, J. (2017). Conventional and unconventional extraction methods applied to the plant, Thymus serpyllum L. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 85, 012064. doi:
  20. Zhang, Q.-W., Lin, L.-G., Ye, W.-C. (2018). Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: a comprehensive review. Chinese Medicine, 13 (1). doi:
  21. Rahman, H., Arini, S. F., Utomo, V. (2020). Tannins Extraction of Tea Leaves by Ultrasonic Method: Comparison with The Conventional Method. Jurnal Teknologi, 8 (1), 84–95. doi:
  22. Dal, O., Şengün, D., Yüksel Özşen, A. (2020). Ultrasound Assisted Extraction for the Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Waste Hazelnut Shell. Environmental Research and Technology. doi:
  23. Nitiwattananon, A., Thanachasai, S. (2019). Comparison of Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Techniques for Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Coconut Husk. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 891, 83–89. doi:
  24. Mahmud, I., E. S. Mirghani, M., Yusof, F., Al-khatib, M. (2019). Effects of Time, Temperature, and Solvent Ratio on the Extraction of Non-Extractable Polyphenols with Anticancer Activity of Barhi Date Palm Kernels Extracts Using Response Surface Methodology. doi:
  25. Derzhavna Farmakopeia Ukrainy. Vol. 3 (2018). Kharkiv: Derzhavne pidpryiemstvo «Ukrainskyi naukovyi farmakopeinyi tsentr yakosti likarskykh zasobiv», 732.
  26. Baghdikian, B., Filly, A., Fabiano-Tixier, A.-S., Petitcolas, E., Mabrouki, F., Chemat, F., Ollivier, É. (2016). Extraction by solvent using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques followed by HPLC analysis of Harpagoside from Harpagophytum procumbens and comparison with conventional solvent extraction methods. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 19 (6), 692–698. doi:
  27. Liu, Y., She, X.-R., Huang, J.-B., Liu, M.-C., Zhan, M.-E. (2018). Ultrasonic-extraction of phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus urinaria: optimization model and antioxidant activity. Food Science and Technology, 38 (suppl 1), 286–293. doi:
  28. Melro, E., Valente, A. J. M., Antunes, F. E., Romano, A., Medronho, B. (2021). Enhancing Lignin Dissolution and Extraction: The Effect of Surfactants. Polymers, 13 (5), 714. doi:
  29. Ruban, O. A., Pertsev, I. M., Kutsenko, S. A., Maslii, Yu. S. (2016). Excipients in the manufacture of drugs. Kharkiv: Golden Pages, 720.




How to Cite

Andryushayev, O., Ruban, O., Maslii, Y., & Rusak, I. (2021). Intensification of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from Acorus calamus leaves. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science, (4(32), 4–10.



Pharmaceutical Science