DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.143945

Ensuring comfort microclimate in the classrooms under condition of the required air exchange

Peter Kapalo, Orest Voznyak, Yuriy Yurkevych, Khrystyna Myroniuk, Iryna Sukholova

Abstract


We performed comparative analysis of regulatory documents, which relate to ventilation of school premises and operate in European countries at present. We showed the essential difference of the recommended air exchange values. We assessed sanitary and hygienic conditions formed in classrooms at different efficiency of a ventilation system both by analytical calculations and by subjective monitoring of microclimate of experimental measurements conducted in school classrooms, when every pupil-participant performed an assessment of the internal environment in the form of a questionnaire. We measured carbonic acid gas contents emitted in a room and determined the required ventilation intensity in the evaluated school premises. We compared the multiplication factor of air exchange of the ventilation system determined in this way with the values obtained by analytical calculations carried out in accordance with current legislation and standards, which are active in Europe. We made calculations based on known analytical dependencies. We determined performance of the ventilation system of the classroom based on СО2 concentrations in internal and inflow air at various values of the multiplication factor of air exchange. It made possible to state that we can achieve the optimal microclimate parameters at air exchange of 30 m3/h per person.

We presented the results of field studies and analytical calculations in the form of tables and visual graphic dependencies. The proposed research method makes it possible to increase accuracy and reliability of air quality control in classrooms by direct measurement of СО2 concentration in a serviced area of a room. The study results provide an opportunity to improve ventilation systems of school buildings. This creates prerequisites for obtaining a social effect due to an increase in labor and learning efficiency

Keywords


multiplication factor of ventilation; energy saving; carbon dioxide concentration; ventilation efficiency; monitoring of microclimate

References


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PrEN 13779. Ventilation for-residential buildings – Performance requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems (2006). European Standard.

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Savchenko, O., Zhelykh, V., Voll, H. (2017). Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia. Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering, 12 (2), 23–30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/sspjce-2017-0015

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Kapalo, P. (2014). Intenzita vetrania v budovách – teoretická a experimentálna analýza. Košice, 75.

Vyhláška Ministerstva zdravotníctva Slovenskej republiky (2007). Zbierka zákonov č. 527/2007. Available at: http://www.uvzsr.sk/docs/leg/527_2007_vyhlaska_zariadenia_pre_deti_a_mladez.pdf

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Persily, A. (1997). Evaluating building IAQ and ventilation witn indoor carbon dioxide. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) annual meeting. Boston.

Karimipanah, T., Sandberg, M., Awbi, H. B. (2000). A comparative study of different air distribution systems in a classroom. Roomvent, 2, 1013–1018.

Federspiel, C. C. (1999). Air-Change Effectiveness: Theory and Calculation Methods. Indoor Air, 9( 1), 47–56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.1999.t01-3-00008.x

Voigt, E., Pelikan, J. (2010). CO2-Measurement during Ventilation. Lübeck, 96.

Kapalo, P., Vilcekova, S., Voznyak, O. (2014). Using experimental measurements of the concentrations of carbon dioxide for determining the intensity of ventilation in the rooms. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 39, 1789–1794. doi: https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1439299

Kapalo, P., Voznyak, O. (2015). Experimental measurements of a carbon dioxide concentration for determining of a ventilation intensity in a room at pulsing mode. Journal of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture, XXXII (4/2015), 201–210. doi: https://doi.org/10.7862/rb.2015.189

Lee, K., Jiang, Z., Chen, Q. (2009). Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems. ASHRAE Transactions, 115 (2). Available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu/~yanchen/paper/2009-9.pdf

Zhao, B., Li, X., Yan, Q. (2003). A simplified system for indoor airflow simulation. Building and Environment, 38 (4), 543–552. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0360-1323(02)00182-8

El'terman, V. M. (1970). Ventilyaciya himicheskih proizvodstv. Moscow: Himiya, 240.

Kоrbut, V., Voznyak, O., Myroniuk, K., Sukholova, I., Kapalo, P. (2017). Examining a device for air distribution by the interaction of counter non-coaxial jets under alternating mode. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (8 (86)), 30–38. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.96774

Voznyak, O., Sukholova, І., Myroniuk, K. (2015). Research of device for air distribution with swirl and spread air jets at variable mode. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6 (7 (78)), 15–23. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2015.56235

Myroniuk, Kh. et. al. (2017). Air distribution by the interaction of counter non-coaxial jets. LAP LAMPART Academic Publishing, 43.

Zhukovsky, S., Klymenko, H. (2009). Experimental and analytical research of pressure effects inside the sectional source air distributor. Zeszyty naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej. Budownictwo i inżynieria środowiska, 266, 151–157.

Voznyak, O. (2015). Air distribution in a room at pulsing mode and dynamic indoor climate creation. Cassotherm 2015, Non-Conference Proceedings of Scientific Papers – KEGA. Kosice, 31–36.


GOST Style Citations


Untersuchungen zur Beluftung von Schulen / Steiger S., Noske F., Kersken M., Hellwig R. T. // Tagungsband Deutsche Kalte-Klima-Tagung. 2008. URL: http://www.bine.info/fileadmin/content/Publikationen/Projekt-Infos/2010/Projektinfo_15-2010/04_Steiger_Noeske_Kersken_Hellwig_2008_Untersuchungen_zur_Belueftung_von_Schulen_DKV.pdf

Untersuchungen zum Raumklima und zur Fensterlüftung in Schulen / Hellwig R. T., Antretter F., Holm A., Sedlbauer K. // Bauphysik. 2009. Vol. 31, Issue 2. P. 89–98. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/bapi.200910013 

PrEN 13779. Ventilation for-residential buildings – Performance requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems. European Standard, 2006.

Székyová M., Ferstl K., Nový R. Vetranie a klimatizácia. Vydavateľstvo Jaga group, 2004. 350 p.

Savchenko O., Zhelykh V., Voll H. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia // Selected Scientific Papers – Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017. Vol. 12, Issue 2. P. 23–30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/sspjce-2017-0015 

Persily A. What we think we know about ventilation? // Proceeding of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate “Indoor Air 2005”. Beijing, 2005. URL: https://www.nist.gov/publications/what-we-think-we-know-about-ventilation

Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (recast) // Official Journal of the European Union. 2010. L 153. P. 13–35. URL: http://enref.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/2010-31-eu.pdf

Kapalo P. Intenzita vetrania v budovách – teoretická a experimentálna analýza. Košice, 2014. 75 p.

Vyhláška Ministerstva zdravotníctva Slovenskej republiky // Zbierka zákonov č. 527/2007. 2007. URL: http://www.uvzsr.sk/docs/leg/527_2007_vyhlaska_zariadenia_pre_deti_a_mladez.pdf

DBN V.2.2-3-97. Vydannia. Budynky ta sporudy navchalnykh zakladiv. Kyiv, 1997. 50 p.

A review of the performance of different ventilation and airflow distribution systems in buildings / Cao G., Awbi H., Yao R., Fan Y., Sirén K., Kosonen R., Zhang J. (Jensen) // Building and Environment. 2014. Vol. 73. P. 171–186. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.12.009 

Chenari B., Dias Carrilho J., Gameiro da Silva M. Towards sustainable, energy-efficient and healthy ventilation strategies in buildings: A review // Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016. Vol. 59. P. 1426–1447. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.074 

Effect of natural ventilation on indoor air quality and thermal comfort in dormitory during winter / Lei Z., Liu C., Wang L., Li N. // Building and Environment. 2017. Vol. 125. P. 240–247. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.08.051 

Cheng Z., Li L., Bahnfleth W. P. Natural ventilation potential for gymnasia – Case study of ventilation and comfort in a multisport facility in northeastern United States // Building and Environment. 2016. Vol. 108. P. 85–98. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.08.019 

Experimental and theoretical investigation of air exchange rate of an indoor aquatic center / Panaras G., Markogiannaki M., Tolis E. I., Sakellaris Y., Bartzis J. G. // Sustainable Cities and Society. 2018. Vol. 39. P. 126–134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.02.012 

Persily A. Evaluating building IAQ and ventilation witn indoor carbon dioxide // American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) annual meeting. Boston, 1997.

Karimipanah T., Sandberg M., Awbi H. B. A comparative study of different air distribution systems in a classroom // Roomvent. 2000. Vol. 2. P. 1013–1018.

Federspiel C. C. Air-Change Effectiveness: Theory and Calculation Methods // Indoor Air. 1999. Vol. 9, Issue 1. P. 47–56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.1999.t01-3-00008.x 

Voigt E., Pelikan J. CO2-Measurement during Ventilation. Lübeck, 2010. 96 p.

Kapalo P., Vilcekova S., Voznyak O. Using experimental measurements of the concentrations of carbon dioxide for determining the intensity of ventilation in the rooms // Chemical Engineering Transactions. 2014. Vol. 39. P. 1789–1794. doi: https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1439299

Kapalo P., Voznyak O. Experimental measurements of a carbon dioxide concentration for determining of a ventilation intensity in a room at pulsing mode // Journal of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture. 2015. Vol. XXXII, Issue 4/2015. P. 201–210. doi: https://doi.org/10.7862/rb.2015.189 

Lee K., Jiang Z., Chen Q. Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems // ASHRAE Transactions. 2009. Vol. 115, Issue 2. URL: https://engineering.purdue.edu/~yanchen/paper/2009-9.pdf

Zhao B., Li X., Yan Q. A simplified system for indoor airflow simulation // Building and Environment. 2003. Vol. 38, Issue 4. P. 543–552. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0360-1323(02)00182-8 

El'terman V. M. Ventilyaciya himicheskih proizvodstv. Moscow: Himiya, 1970. 240 p.

Examining a device for air distribution by the interaction of counter non-coaxial jets under alternating mode / Kоrbut V., Voznyak O., Myroniuk K., Sukholova I., Kapalo P. // 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 8 (86). P. 30–38. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.96774 

Voznyak O., Sukholova І., Myroniuk K. Research of device for air distribution with swirl and spread air jets at variable mode // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2015. Vol. 6, Issue 7 (78). P. 15–23. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2015.56235 

Air distribution by the interaction of counter non-coaxial jets: monography / Myroniuk Kh. et. al. LAP LAMPART Academic Publishing, 2017. 43 p.

Zhukovsky S., Klymenko H. Experimental and analytical research of pressure effects inside the sectional source air distributor // Zeszyty naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej. Budownictwo i inżynieria środowiska. 2009. Vol. 266. P. 151–157.

Voznyak O. Air distribution in a room at pulsing mode and dynamic indoor climate creation // Cassotherm 2015, Non-Conference Proceedings of Scientific Papers – KEGA. Kosice, 2015. P. 31–36.







Copyright (c) 2018 Peter Kapalo, Orest Voznyak, Yuriy Yurkevych, Khrystyna Myroniuk, Iryna Sukholova

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061