Development of ferritization processing of galvanic waste involving the energy­saving electromagnetic pulse activation of the process




ferritization, galvanic waste, heavy metals, electromagnetic pulse discharges, leaching


This paper considers the prospect of improving the level of environmental safety of industrial enterprises resulting from the implementation of a resource-saving technology for processing the wastes of galvanic production by a ferritization method using the electromagnetic pulse activation of the process. The influence of different activation techniques of the ferritization process has been experimentally determined: thermal and electromagnetic pulse at stable technological parameters (СΣ=10.41 g/dm3; Z=4/1; рН=10.5; τ=25 min; ʋ=0.15 m3/h) on the degree of extraction of heavy metal ions from galvanic wastes. It has been shown that the best processing indicators were achieved at the following mode characteristics for generating electromagnetic pulse discharges: the amplitude of magnetic induction 0.298 Tl, the frequency of pulses from 0.5 to 10 Hz. Such an activation technique ensures the proper degree of heavy metal ions extraction – 99.97 % enabling the use of purified solutions at an enterprise water circulation system. A structural study has been performed into the phase composition and physical properties of ferritization sediments. The environmentally safe ferritization sediments that were obtained under the thermal and electromagnetic pulse activation techniques are characterized by a high degree of compaction, exceeding 90 %, and the crystalline structure with the maximum content of ferrite phases with magnetic properties. In addition, as shown by experiments on heavy metal leaching, these sediments are characterized by a high degree of their immobilization, which reaches 99.96 %, in contrast to galvanic sludge from the neutralization of wastewater, <97.83 %. The method of electromagnetic pulse activation also has the undeniable energy advantages compared to the high-temperature one: energy costs are reduced by more than 42 %. The proposed process for galvanic waste processing by the improved method of ferritization prevents pollution of the environment, ensures efficient and rational use of water, raw materials, and energy in the system of galvanic production

Author Biographies

Gennadii Kochetov, Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture Povitroflotskyi ave., 31, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03037

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor

Department of Chemistry

Tatiana Prikhna, V. Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials Avtozavodska str., 2, Kyiv, Ukraine, 04074

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of NAS of Ukraine, Head of Department

Department No. 7

Dmitry Samchenko, Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture Povitroflotskyi ave., 31, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03037

PhD, Senior Researcher

Scientific Research Part

Oleksandr Kovalchuk, Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture Povitroflotskyi ave., 31, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03037

PhD, Senior Researcher

Scientific Research Institute for Binders and Materials


  1. Tokach, Y. E., Rubanov, Y. K., Pivovarova, N. A., Balyatinskaya, L. N. (2013). Galvanic Sludge Recycling with the Extraction of Valuable Components. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 18 (11), 1646–1655.
  2. Kurama, H. (2009). Treatment and recovery of nickel rich precipitate from plating plant waste. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 17 (4), 212–218. doi:
  3. Natsionalna dopovid pro stan navkolyshnoho pryrodnoho seredovyshcha v Ukraini u 2015 rotsi (2017). Kyiv: Ministerstvo ekolohiyi ta pryrodnykh resursiv Ukrainy, FOP Hrin D.S., 308.
  4. Gomelia, N., Trokhymenko, G., Hlushko, O., Shabliy, T. (2018). Electroextraction of heavy metals from wastewater for the protection of natural water bodies from pollution. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (10 (91)), 55–61. doi:
  5. Peng, J., Song, Y., Yuan, P., Cui, X., Qiu, G. (2009). The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161 (2-3), 633–640. doi:
  6. Tu, Y.-J., Chang, C.-K., You, C.-F., Wang, S.-L. (2012). Treatment of complex heavy metal wastewater using a multi-staged ferrite process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 209-210, 379–384. doi:
  7. Teremova, M. I., Petrakovskaya, E. A., Romanchenko, A. S., Tuzikov, F. V., Gurevich, Y. L., Tsibina, O. V. et. al. (2016). Ferritization of industrial waste water and microbial synthesis of iron-based magnetic nanomaterials from sediments. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 35 (5), 1407–1414. doi:
  8. Podol’skaya, Z. V., Buzaeva, M. V., Klimov, E. S. (2011). Adsorption of heavy metal ions on galvanic sludges and disposal of the sludges in soil. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 84 (1), 40–43. doi:
  9. Lu, H.-C., Chang, J.-E., Shih, P.-H., Chiang, L.-C. (2008). Stabilization of copper sludge by high-temperature CuFe2O4 synthesis process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150 (3), 504–509. doi:
  10. Frolova, L. A., Pivovarov, A. A., Anisimova, L. B., Yakubovskaya, Z. N., Yakubovskii, A. I. (2017). The extraction of chromium (III) from concentrated solutions by ferrite method. Voprosy Khimii i Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii, 6, 110–115.
  11. Heuss-Aßbichler, S., John, M., Klapper, D., Bläß, U. W., Kochetov, G. (2016). Recovery of copper as zero-valent phase and/or copper oxide nanoparticles from wastewater by ferritization. Journal of Environmental Management, 181, 1–7. doi:
  12. Yadollahpour, A., Rashidi, S., Ghotbeddin, Z., Rezaee, Z. (2014). Electromagnetic Fields for the Treatments of Wastewater: A Review of Applications and Future Opportunities. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 8 (5), 3711–3719.
  13. Kochetov, G., Prikhna, T., Kovalchuk, O., Samchenko, D. (2018). Research of the treatment of depleted nickel­plating electrolytes by the ferritization method. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3 (6 (93)), 52–60. doi:
  14. Kochetov, G., Samchenko, D., Naumenko, I. (2014). Improvement of the ferritisation method for removal of nickel compounds from wastewater. Civil and Environmental Engineering, 5, 143–148.
  15. Yang, X., He, J., Yang, Q., Jiao, R., Liao, G., Wang, D. (2019). Cu(I)-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles/porous C composite for enhanced H2O2 oxidation of carbamazepine. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 551, 16–25. doi:
  16. Umut, E., Coşkun, M., Pineider, F., Berti, D., Güngüneş, H. (2019). Nickel ferrite nanoparticles for simultaneous use in magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 550, 199–209. doi:
  17. Bajorek, A., Berger, C., Dulski, M., Łopadczak, P., Zubko, M., Prusik, K. et. al. (2019). Microstructural and magnetic characterization of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 129, 1–21. doi:
  18. Merentsov, N. A., Bokhan, S. A., Lebedev, V. N., Persidskiy, A. V., Balashov, V. A. (2018). System for Centralised Collection, Recycling and Removal of Waste Pickling and Galvanic Solutions and Sludge. Materials Science Forum, 927, 183–189. doi:
  19. Debnath, T., Bandyopadhyay, A., Chakraborty, T., Das, S., Sutradhar, S. (2019). Influence of different Cr concentrations on the structural and ferromagnetic properties of ZnO nanomaterials prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis route. Materials Research Bulletin, 118, 110480. doi:
  20. Ntumba Malenga, E., Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F., Nheta, W. (2015). Alkaline leaching of nickel bearing ammonium jarosite precipitate using KOH, NaOH and NH4OH in the presence of EDTA and Na2S. Hydrometallurgy, 155, 69–78. doi:
  21. Halbedel, B., Prikhna, T., Quiroz, P., Schawohl, J., Kups, T., Monastyrov, M. (2018). Iron oxide nanopowder synthesized by electroerosion dispersion (EED) – Properties and potential for microwave applications. Current Applied Physics, 18 (11), 1410–1414. doi:
  22. Kovalchuk, O., Kochetov, G., Samchenko, D., Kolodko, A. (2019). Development of a technology for utilizing the electroplating wastes by applying a ferritization method to the alkaline­activated materials. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (10 (98)), 27–34. doi:
  23. Gao, J., Cheng, F. (2018). Study on the preparation of spinel ferrites with enhanced magnetic properties using limonite laterite ore as raw materials. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 460, 213–222. doi:
  24. Stepin, S. N., Garifullina, E. I., Katnov, V. E., Usmanov, I. V., Tolstosheyeva, S. I. (2018). Properties of anti-corrosive ferrite pigment synthesized with the use of production waste. International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, 18 (6.1), 417‒423. doi:
  25. Makarchuk, O., Dontsova, T., Perekos, A. (2017). Magnetic Nanocomposite Sorbents on Mineral Base. Nanophysics, Nanomaterials, Interface Studies, and Applications, 705–719. doi:




How to Cite

Kochetov, G., Prikhna, T., Samchenko, D., & Kovalchuk, O. (2019). Development of ferritization processing of galvanic waste involving the energy­saving electromagnetic pulse activation of the process. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6(10 (102), 6–14.