Analysis of compositions and fuel specifications of the aqueous emulsion fuels of gasoline (RON 90)-ethanol-water in stable emulsions at low temperatures
Keywords:gasoline, ethanol, water in one phase, fuel parameter, stable emulsion, gasoline and aqueous ethanol dissolve, conditions of gasoline and aqueous ethanol separation, single-phase, non-synthetic surfactant emulsion
Many countries worldwide encounter the greatest difficulties in improving people's life quality since fossil fuel reserves are decreasing, causing fuel prices to rise drastically. This problem has made many countries, including Indonesia, struggle to import them from producers in the Middle East. Adding a small part of ethanol to gasoline is one of the solutions that has been investigated and developed.
The previous works relating to blended fuels, gasoline and ethanol, generally employed absolute alcohol, which was expensive. A small surfactant was added to the mixture to stabilize the emulsion, and the blending was conducted in normal conditions (room temperature). If the composition of gasoline and aqueous ethanol is not precise, the components can be separated at a specific temperature.
The present study is aimed to report the analysis of compositions and fuel specifications of aqueous emulsions of gasoline (RON 90)-ethanol-water in a single phase without using a synthetic surfactant in the temperature range of 0–25 °C. The procedures were as follows: fermentation, ethanol distillation and purification, cooling, blending, and characterization of fuel specifications. Components of gasoline (RON 90)-ethanol-water formed a stable emulsion in the composition range of 28.00‒99.79 %, 0.20‒67.97 %, and 0.01‒3.58 %. The observation found that continually increasing the amount of aqueous ethanol and temperature after one phase was attained would not lead to the separation of components. Therefore, gasoline and aqueous ethanol can form a single phase functioning as a surfactant binding water and fossil fuel. The decrease in temperature after the emulsion is stabilized can separate the components whereby it is caused by the faster density change of aqueous ethanol than gasoline
- The work had finished successfully under supporting of respected persons at my institution, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia. I thank Rector Professor Ellen Joan Kumaat, who fully supported the work by providing the Lab facility needed. Furthermore, I greatly appreciate Professor Jefrey I. Kindangen, who competitively selected the submitted project proposals and managed the research administration documents. Finally, the approval of the research proposal signed by the Dean of Mathematics and Sciences School, Professor Benny Pinontoan, is highly appreciated. We also thank the contributors, the PIC of the Laboratory of Oil and Gas Processing Engineering, Polytechnic of Energy and Minerals, Cepu Blora, Central Java, and Oil and Gas Laboratory, State Polytechnic of Samarinda, East Kalimantan. We appreciate their technical assistance in measuring the emulsion fuel specifications.
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