Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research

The editors adhere to the principle that the benefits potentially derived from any research that causes harm to animals must be significant in relation to any costs incurred by animals, and that the procedures carried out should not offend the majority of readers. Authors should take special care to ensure that their studies are consistent with generally accepted:

- Substitute animals with alternatives wherever possible.

- Reducing the number of animals used.

- Clarification of experimental conditions and procedures to minimize harm to animals.

Authors should include detailed information about accommodation, animal care, and pain management in their manuscript.

Animal studies should only be conducted after approval by the appropriate ethical committee.

If there is no animal ethics committee to review applications, authors should be aware that the ethics of their research will be assessed by reviewers and editors. Authors must provide a statement ethically justifying the work.