DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.109841

### A simulation study of surface water purifying through a polystyrene foam filter

Sergiy Martynov, Sergiy Kunytskiy, Alla Orlova

#### Abstract

The study has improved the mathematical model of water purification in view of the physicochemical properties of surface water, the type of filter loading, and the filtration characteristics of filtering structures. The advanced mathematical model takes into account the inverse influence of the process characteristics on the filtration parameters, changes in the diameters of the loaded grains throughout the height, the direction of filtering, and the turbidity of water at the inlet.

The authors performed a comparative analysis of the work of filters with homogeneous and non-uniform loading for water filtration in different directions and carried out statistical processing of the results of the study with the establishment of the adequacy and the possibility of its use for a mathematical description of water treatment processes.

Physicochemical properties of surface water entering filtration structures are taken into account in the model in the form of kinetic coefficients. The kinetic coefficients, which characterize the intensity of contaminants’ separation from and adhesion to the loaded grains, were obtained using the dimension theory method and were deduced for floating densities.

It has been determined that the optimum loading height is 1.0 m for the ascending and descending filtration directions, where the output water quality is of the normative values. The improved mathematical model can help select the optimal design (the loading height and area, the granulometric composition, etc.) and the technological parameters (velocity and direction of filtration, degree of vaporization of incoming water) of polystyrene foam filters; it allows producing simulation of filters’ work in different conditions.

A simulation of the work of polystyrene foam filters with different parameters of operation was carried out, which made it possible to specify optimal structural and technological parameters of the polystyrene foam filters for purifying water of the Horyn River (Rivne Oblast, Ukraine), the composition of which is typical for most plain rivers in Ukraine

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#### References

Orlov, V., Martynov, S., Kunytskiy, S. (2016). Energy saving in water treatment technologies with polystyrene foam filters. Journal of Water and Land Development, 31 (1). doi: 10.1515/jwld-2016-0042

Mel'cer, V. Z. (1995). Fil'troval'nye sooruzheniya v kommunal'nom vodosnabzhenii. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 176.

Derzhavni sanitarni normy i pravyla. Hihienichni vymohy do vody pytnoi, pryznachenoi dlia spozhyvannia liudynoiu: DSanPiN 2.2.4-171-10 (2010). Kyiv.

Orlov, V. O., Martynov, S. Yu., Orlova, A. M. et. al. (2012). Ochyshchennia pryrodnoi vody na pinopolistyrolnykh filtrakh. Rivne, 172.

Żurek, A. (2015). Environmental flow as an area of potential conflict between the role of groundwater in the supply and its environmental function. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Formatio Circumiectus, 13 (4), 301–314. doi: 10.15576/asp.fc/2014.13.4.301

Ying, Y., Ying, W., Li, Q., Meng, D., Ren, G., Yan, R., Peng, X. (2017). Recent advances of nanomaterial-based membrane for water purification. Applied Materials Today, 7, 144–158. doi: 10.1016/j.apmt.2017.02.010

Denisov, S. E., Shirokova, M. V. (2016). Analysis of the Effectiveness of Sorption and Membrane Technologies and Water Purification Equipment with Increased α-Activity for Domestic Water Supply. Procedia Engineering, 150, 2364–2368. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.325

Liu, R., Sun, L., Ju, R., Liu, H., Gu, J., Li, G. (2013). Treatment of low-turbidity source water by permanganate pre-oxidation: In situ formed hydrous manganese dioxide as filter aid. Separation and Purification Technology, 117, 69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2013.04.007

Kim, K.-Y., Kim, H.-S., Kim, J., Nam, J.-W., Kim, J.-M., Son, S. (2009). A hybrid microfiltration–granular activated carbon system for water purification and wastewater reclamation/reuse. Desalination, 243 (1-3), 132–144. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2008.04.020

Orlov, V., Safonyk, A., Martynov, S., Kunytskyi, S. (2016). Simulation the process of iron removal the underground water by polystyrene foam filters. International Journal of Pure and Apllied Mathematics, 109 (4). doi: 10.12732/ijpam.v109i4.11

Mwakabona, H. T., Ndé-Tchoupé, A. I., Njau, K. N., Noubactep, C., Wydra, K. D. (2017). Metallic iron for safe drinking water provision: Considering a lost knowledge. Water Research, 117, 127–142. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.03.001

Schöntag, J. M., Pizzolatti, B. S., Jangada, V. H., de Souza, F. H., Sens, M. L. (2015). Water quality produced by polystyrene granules as a media filter on rapid filters. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 5, 118–126. doi: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2015.02.001

Pérez-Vidal, A., Diaz-Gómez, J., Castellanos-Rozo, J., Usaquen-Perilla, O. L. (2016). Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters. Water Research, 98, 176–182. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.04.016

Hrabovskyi, P. O., Hurinchyk, N. O. (2005). Chyselna realizatsiya matematychnoi modeli filtruvannia. Problemy vodopostachannia, vodovidvedennia ta hidravliky, 6, 4–13.

Polyakov, V. L. (2010). Osvetlenie suspenzii fil'trovaniem s ubyvayushchim raskhodom. Dopovid natsionalnoi akademii nauk Ukrainy, 5, 57–63.

Qin, Z., Pletcher, R. H. (2015). A statistical model of pressure drop increase with deposition in granular filters. Advanced Powder Technology, 26 (1), 49–55. doi: 10.1016/j.apt.2014.08.003

Minc, D. M. (1964). Teoreticheskie osnovy tekhnologii ochistki vody. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 155.

Ivanchuk, N., Martynyuk, P., Tsvetkova, T., Michuta, O. (2017). Mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the filtration processes in earth dams. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (6 (86)), 63–69. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.98712

Martynov, S. Yu. (2014). Modeliuvannia roboty pinopolistyrolnykh filtriv zi zminnoiu shvydkistiu filtruvannia. Visnyk NUVHP, 2 (66), 262–269.

Polyakov, V. L. (2009). Fil'trovanie suspenzii s peremennym soderzhaniem vzvesi cherez odnorodnuyu zagruzku pri nelineynoy kinetike massoobmena. Dopovid natsionalnoi akademyi nauk Ukrainy, 12, 61–68.

Оrlov, V., Martynov, S., Kunitsky, S. (2016). Water defferrization in polystyrene foam filters with sediment layer. Saarbrucken, Deutschland: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 94.

Lin, T., Chen, W., Wang, L. (2010). Particle properties in granular activated carbon filter during drinking water treatment. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22 (5), 681–688. doi: 10.1016/s1001-0742(09)60163-7

Orlov, V. O. (2005). Vodoochysni filtry iz zernystoiu zasypkoiu. Rivne: NUVHP, 163.

Orlov, V. O., Martynov, S. Yu., Orlova, A. M. (1995). Proektuvannia stantsyi proiasnennia ta znebarvlennia vody. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 176.

Hirol, M. M., Trach, Yu. P. (2014). Doslidzhennia roboty filtra iz pinopolistyrolnym filtruiuchym sharom ta aeratsiynoiu kameroiu i obgruntuvannia yoho parametriv roboty. Visnyk NUVHP, 1 (65), 137–145.

DSTU 7525:2014. Voda pytna. Vymohy ta metody kontroliuvannia yakosti zatverdzhenyi Nakazom Minekonomrozvytku Ukrainy vid 23.10.2014 No. 1257 (2014). Kyiv.

#### GOST Style Citations

Orlov, V. Energy saving in water treatment technologies with polystyrene foam filters [Text] / V. Orlov, S. Martynov, S. Kunytskiy // Journal of Water and Land Development. – 2016. – Vol. 31, Issue 1. doi: 10.1515/jwld-2016-0042

Mel'cer, V. Z. Fil'troval'nye sooruzheniya v kommunal'nom vodosnabzhenii [Text] / V. Z. Mel'cer. – Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1995. – 176 p.

Derzhavni sanitarni normy i pravyla. Hihienichni vymohy do vody pytnoi, pryznachenoi dlia spozhyvannia liudynoiu: DSanPiN 2.2.4-171-10 [Text]. – Kyiv, 2010.

Orlov, V. O. Ochyshchennia pryrodnoi vody na pinopolistyrolnykh filtrakh [Text] / V. O. Orlov, S. Yu. Martynov, A. M. Orlova et. al.; NUVHP. – Rivne, 2012. – 172 p.

Żurek, A. Environmental flow as an area of potential conflict between the role of groundwater in the supply and its environmental function [Text] / A. Żurek // Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Formatio Circumiectus. – 2015. – Vol. 13, Issue 4. – P. 301–314. doi: 10.15576/asp.fc/2014.13.4.301

Ying, Y. Recent advances of nanomaterial-based membrane for water purification [Text] / Y. Ying, W. Ying, Q. Li, D. Meng, G. Ren, R. Yan, X. Peng // Applied Materials Today. – 2017. – Vol. 7. – P. 144–158. doi: 10.1016/j.apmt.2017.02.010

Denisov, S. E. Analysis of the Effectiveness of Sorption and Membrane Technologies and Water Purification Equipment with Increased α-Activity for Domestic Water Supply [Text] / S. E. Denisov, M. V. Shirokova // Procedia Engineering. – 2016. – Vol. 150. – P. 2364–2368. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.325

Liu, R. Treatment of low-turbidity source water by permanganate pre-oxidation: In situ formed hydrous manganese dioxide as filter aid [Text] / R. Liu, L. Sun, R. Ju, H. Liu, J. Gu, G. Li // Separation and Purification Technology. – 2013. – Vol. 117. – P. 69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2013.04.007

Kim, K.-Y. A hybrid microfiltration–granular activated carbon system for water purification and wastewater reclamation/reuse [Text] / K.-Y. Kim, H.-S. Kim, J. Kim, J.-W. Nam, J.-M. Kim, S. Son // Desalination. – 2009. – Vol. 243, Issue 1-3. – P. 132–144. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2008.04.020

Orlov, V. Simulation the process of iron removal the underground water by polystyrene foam filters [Text] / V. Orlov, A. Safonyk, S. Martynov, S. Kunytskyi // International Journal of Pure and Apllied Mathematics. – 2016. – Vol. 109, Issue 4. doi: 10.12732/ijpam.v109i4.11

Mwakabona, H. T. Metallic iron for safe drinking water provision: Considering a lost knowledge [Text] / H. T. Mwakabona, A. I. Ndé-Tchoupé, K. N. Njau, C. Noubactep, K. D. Wydra // Water Research. – 2017. – Vol. 117. – P. 127–142. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.03.001

Schöntag, J. M. Water quality produced by polystyrene granules as a media filter on rapid filters [Text] / J. M. Schöntag, B. S. Pizzolatti, V. H. Jangada, F. H. de Souza, M. L. Sens // Journal of Water Process Engineering. – 2015. – Vol. 5. – P. 118–126. doi: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2015.02.001

Pérez-Vidal, A. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters [Text] / A. Pérez-Vidal, J. Diaz-Gómez, J. Castellanos-Rozo, O. L. Usaquen-Perilla // Water Research. – 2016. – Vol. 98. – P. 176–182. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.04.016

Hrabovskyi, P. O. Chyselna realizatsiya matematychnoi modeli filtruvannia [Text] / P. O. Hrabovskyi, N. O. Hurinchyk // Problemy vodopostachannia, vodovidvedennia ta hidravliky. – 2005. – Issue 6. – P. 4–13.

Polyakov, V. L. Osvetlenie suspenzii fil'trovaniem s ubyvayushchim raskhodom [Text] / V. L. Polyakov // Dopovid natsionalnoi akademii nauk Ukrainy. – 2010. – Issue 5. – P. 57–63.

Qin, Z. A statistical model of pressure drop increase with deposition in granular filters [Text] / Z. Qin, R. H. Pletcher // Advanced Powder Technology. – 2015. – Vol. 26, Issue 1. – P. 49–55. doi: 10.1016/j.apt.2014.08.003

Minc, D. M. Teoreticheskie osnovy tekhnologii ochistki vody [Text] / M. D. Minc. – Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1964. – 155 p.

Ivanchuk, N. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the filtration processes in earth dams [Text] / N. Ivanchuk, P. Martynyuk, T. Tsvetkova, O. Michuta // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. – 2017. – Vol. 2, Issue 6 (86). – P. 63–69. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.98712

Martynov, S. Yu. Modeliuvannia roboty pinopolistyrolnykh filtriv zi zminnoiu shvydkistiu filtruvannia [Text] / S. Yu. Martynov // Visnyk NUVHP. – 2014. – Issue 2 (66). – P. 262–269.

Polyakov, V. L. Fil'trovanie suspenzii s peremennym soderzhaniem vzvesi cherez odnorodnuyu zagruzku pri nelineynoy kinetike massoobmena [Text] / V. L. Polyakov // Dopovid natsionalnoi akademyi nauk Ukrainy. – 2009. – Issue 12. – P. 61–68.

Оrlov, V. Water defferrization in polystyrene foam filters with sediment layer [Text] / V. Orlov, S. Martynov, S. Kunitsky. – Saarbrucken, Deutschland: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2016. – 94 p.

Lin, T. Particle properties in granular activated carbon filter during drinking water treatment [Text] / T. Lin, W. Chen, L. Wang // Journal of Environmental Sciences. – 2010. – Vol. 22, Issue 5. – P. 681–688. doi: 10.1016/s1001-0742(09)60163-7

Orlov, V. O. Vodoochysni filtry iz zernystoiu zasypkoiu [Text] / V. O. Orlov. – Rivne: NUVHP, 2005. – 163 p.

Orlov, V. O. Proektuvannia stantsyi proiasnennia ta znebarvlennia vody [Text] / V. O. Orlov, S. Yu. Martynov, A. M. Orlova. – Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1995. – 176 p.

Hirol, M. M. Doslidzhennia roboty filtra iz pinopolistyrolnym filtruiuchym sharom ta aeratsiynoiu kameroiu i obgruntuvannia yoho parametriv roboty [Text] / M. M. Hirol, Yu. P. Trach // Visnyk NUVHP. – 2014. – Issue 1 (65). – P. 137–145.

DSTU 7525:2014. Voda pytna. Vymohy ta metody kontroliuvannia yakosti zatverdzhenyi Nakazom Minekonomrozvytku Ukrainy vid 23.10.2014 No. 1257 [Text]. – Kyiv, 2014.

Copyright (c) 2017 Sergiy Martynov, Sergiy Kunytskiy, Alla Orlova