DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.110488

Formation of biofilms on dairy equipment and the influence of disinfectants on them

Mykola Kukhtyn, Oleksandra Berhilevych, Khrystyna Kravcheniuk, Oksana Shynkaruk, Yulia Horyuk, Nazariy Semaniuk

Abstract


Scientific studies show that microbial biofilms formed on the surfaces of dairy equipment negatively affect safety of the finished products and constitute a danger to the human health. This is due to the fact that the biofilms, in addition to the saprophytic microflora, may contain pathogenic micro-organisms as well. The present paper reports results of the studies into composition of the microflora of dairy equipment and finished products, the process of biofilm formation on stainless steel with different surface roughness, with the effect of disinfectants on the planktonic and biofilm forms of bacteria determined.

It was established that bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus and the Enterobacteriaceae family are most often isolated from dairy equipment and finished dairy products, with staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, and pseudomonads isolated in a lesser degree. The isolated bacteria mainly form biofilms of high and medium density. It was found that the Escherichia coli biofilms of lower density form on the surface of stainless steel of brand AISI 321 with a surface roughness of 0.16 µm compared to the surface with a surface roughness of 0.63‒0.955 µm. This process takes place at a temperature of 17 °C, over 6‒24 hours, followed by the formation of a high-density biofilm regardless of the surface roughness. It was established that the disinfectant Argenvit proved to be inefficient for the biofilm and planktonic forms of bacteria. The disinfectants P3-ansep CIP, Eco chlor, Medicarine and Maxidez demonstrated bactericidal effect on the planktonic bacteria; they, however, did not act on the biofilm forms. The most effective disinfectant in terms of action on the bacteria in biofilms proved to be the disinfectant Р3-oxonia active-150 based on hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid.

Thus, the data obtained indicate that in order to efficiently sanitize dairy equipment, it is required to use the disinfectants that affect bacteria in the biofilms. This in turn will ensure production of safe dairy products

Keywords


bacteria; biofilms; matrix; adhesion; dairy equipment; stainless steel; roughness; disinfectants

References


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GOST Style Citations


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Shi, X. Biofilm formation and food safety in food industries [Text] / X. Shi, X. Zhu // Trends in Food Science & Technology. – 2009. – Vol. 20, Issue 9. – P. 407–413. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2009.01.054 

Sepulveda, D. R. Shelf life of whole milk processed by pulsed electric fields in combination with PEF-generated heat [Text] / D. R. Sepulveda, M. M. Góngora-Nieto, J. A. Guerrero, G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas // LWT – Food Science and Technology. – 2009. – Vol. 42, Issue 3. – P. 735–739. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2008.10.005 

Aires, G. S. B. Bacillus cereus in Refrigerated Milk Submitted to Different Heat Treatments [Text] / G. S. B. Aires, E. H. M. Walter, V. C. A. Junqueira, S. M. Roig, J. A. F. Faria // Journal of Food Protection. – 2009. – Vol. 72, Issue 6. – P. 1301–1305. doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-72.6.1301 

Walkling-Ribeiro, M. Microbial inactivation and shelf life comparison of ‘cold’ hurdle processing with pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, and conventional thermal pasteurisation in skim milk [Text] / M. Walkling-Ribeiro, O. Rodríguez-González, S. Jayaram, M. W. Griffiths // International Journal of Food Microbiology. – 2011. – Vol. 144, Issue 3. – P. 379–386. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.10.023 

Petrus, R. R. Microbiological Shelf Life of Pasteurized Milk in Bottle and Pouch [Text] / R. R. Petrus, C. G. Loiola, C. A. F. Oliveira // Journal of Food Science. – 2010. – Vol. 75, Issue 1. – P. M36–M40. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01443.x 

Lequette, Y. Using enzymes to remove biofilms of bacterial isolates sampled in the food-industry [Text] / Y. Lequette, G. Boels, M. Clarisse, C. Faille // Biofouling. – 2010. – Vol. 26, Issue 4. – P. 421–431. doi: 10.1080/08927011003699535 

Haeghebaert, S. Food poisoning incidents in France in 1998 [Text] / S. Haeghebaert, F. Le Querrec, V. Vaillant et. al. // Bull Epidemiol Hebdomad. – 2010. – P. 65–70.

Marchand, S. Biofilm Formation in Milk Production and Processing Environments; Influence on Milk Quality and Safety [Text] / S. Marchand, J. De Block, V. De Jonghe, A. Coorevits, M. Heyndrickx, L. Herman // Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. – 2012. – Vol. 11, Issue 2. – P. 133–147. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00183.x 

Bremer, P. Biofilms in dairy processing [Text] / P. Bremer, B. Seale, S. Flint, J. Palmer // Biofilms in the Food and Beverage Industries. – 2009. – P. 396–431. doi: 10.1201/9781439847480-c15 

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Hcevar, M. An overview of the influence of stainless-steel surface properties on bacterial adhesion [Text] / M. Hcevar, M. Jenko, M. Godec, D. Drobne // Materials and technology. – 2014. – Vol. 48, Issue 5. – P. 609–617.

Krushelnytska, N. V. Influence of pH on the ability to form microbial biofilms by microorganisms isolated from milking equipment and raw milk [Text] / N. V. Krushelnytska // Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Biology and the State Scientific-Research Control Institute of Veterinary Preparations and Feed Additives. – 2013. – Vol. 14, Issue 3-4. – P. 82–86. – Available at: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Ntbibt_2013_14_3-4_17

Frasseto, F. Relationship among Salivary Carbonic Anhydrase VI Activity and Flow Rate, Biofilm pH and Caries in Primary Dentition [Text] / F. Frasseto, T. M. Parisotto, R. C. R. Peres, M. R. Marques, S. R. P. Line, M. Nobre dos Santos // Caries Research. – 2012. – Vol. 46, Issue 3. – P. 194–200. doi: 10.1159/000337275 

Chandy, J. P. Determination of nutrients limiting biofilm formation and the subsequent impact on disinfectant decay [Text] / J. P. Chandy, M. L. Angles // Water Research. – 2001. – Vol. 35, Issue 11. – P. 2677–2682. doi: 10.1016/s0043-1354(00)00572-8 

Sheng, X. The influence of ionic strength, nutrients and pH on bacterial adhesion to metals [Text] / X. Sheng, Y. P. Ting, S. O. Pehkonen // Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. – 2008. – Vol. 321, Issue 2. – P. 256–264. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2008.02.038 

Kolter, R. Microbial sciences: The superficial life of microbes [Text] / R. Kolter, E. P. Greenberg // Nature. – 2006. – Vol. 441, Issue 7091. – P. 300–302. doi: 10.1038/441300a 

Volkova, H. Biofilms and hygiene on dairy farms and in the dairy industry: sanitation chemical products and their effectiveness on biofilms – a review [Text] / H. Volkova, V. Babak // Czech S. Food Sci. – 2008. – Vol. 26, Issue 5. – P. 309–323.

Arciola, C. R. Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus implant infections. A review of molecular mechanisms and implications for biofilm-resistant materials [Text] / C. R. Arciola, D. Campoccia, P. Speziale, L. Montanaro, J. W. Costerton // Biomaterials. – 2012. – Vol. 33, Issue 26. – P. 5967–5982. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.05.031 

Gunduz, G. T. Biofilm formation in an ice cream plant [Text] / G. T. Gunduz, G. Tuncel // Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. – 2006. – Vol. 89, Issue 3-4. – P. 329–336. doi: 10.1007/s10482-005-9035-9 

Abdallah, M. Biofilm formation and persistence on abiotic surfaces in the context of food and medical environments [Text] / M. Abdallah, C. Benoliel, D. Drider, P. Dhulster, N.-E. Chihib // Archives of Microbiology. – 2014. – Vol. 196, Issue 7. – P. 453–472. doi: 10.1007/s00203-014-0983-1 

Puga, C. H. Listeria monocytogenes Impact on Mature or Old Pseudomonas fluorescens Biofilms During Growth at 4 and 20 °C [Text] / C. H. Puga, B. Orgaz, C. SanJose // Frontiers in Microbiology. – 2016. – Vol. 7. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00134 

Munsch-Alatossava, P. Phenotypic characterization of raw milk-associated psychrotrophic bacteria [Text] / P. Munsch-Alatossava, T. Alatossava // Microbiological Research. – 2006. – Vol. 161, Issue 4. – P. 334–346. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2005.12.004 

Shaheen, R. Persistence strategies of Bacillus cereus spores isolated from dairy silo tanks [Text] / R. Shaheen, B. Svensson, M. A. Andersson, A. Christiansson, M. Salkinoja-Salonen // Food Microbiology. – 2010. – Vol. 27, Issue 3. – P. 347–355. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2009.11.004 

Ranieri, M. L. High temperature, short time pasteurization temperatures inversely affect bacterial numbers during refrigerated storage of pasteurized fluid milk [Text] / M. L. Ranieri, J. R. Huck, M. Sonnen, D. M. Barbano, K. J. Boor // Journal of Dairy Science. – 2009. – Vol. 92, Issue 10. – P. 4823–4832. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2144 

Cloete, T. E. Resistance mechanisms of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds [Text] / T. E. Cloete // International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. – 2003. – Vol. 51, Issue 4. – P. 277–282. doi: 10.1016/s0964-8305(03)00042-8 

Davin-Regli, A. Cross-resistance between biocides and antimicrobials: an emerging question [Text] / A. Davin-Regli, J. M. Pages // evue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE. – 2012. – Vol. 31, Issue 1. – P. 89–104. doi: 10.20506/rst.31.1.2099 

Simões, M. A review of current and emergent biofilm control strategies [Text] / M. Simões, L. C. Simões, M. J. Vieira // LWT – Food Science and Technology. – 2010. – Vol. 43, Issue 4. – P. 573–583. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2009.12.008 

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061