DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.133387

Investigation of the electrochromic properties of Ni(OH)2 films on glass with ITO­Ni bilayer coating

Valerii Kotok, Vadym Kovalenko

Abstract


Electrochromic films have been deposited onto glass coated with indium-tin oxide (ITO) and glass with ITO and a thin layer of metallic nickel deposited onto it. Nickel was deposited onto the surface of the ITO coating from nickel electroplating solution. The metallic nickel was deposited onto the surface of ITO at the following parameters – cathodic current density 0.5 A/dn2, deposition time 3 s. Such deposition parameters were chosen, because at longer deposition time and (or) higher current density, the deposited layer of metallic nickel became opaque. The two substrates were then used in the deposition of Ni(OH)2 electrochromic films using the cathodic template synthesis method. As a result, it was revealed that the electrochromic film deposited onto glass with ITO-Ni coating possesses higher specific characteristics than that deposited on bare ITO-coated glass: higher coloration degree and higher oxidation-reduction currents on the cyclic voltamperogram. However, it was also revealed that the film possessing better characteristics, on the contrary, has lower reversibility of the coloration-bleaching process. Based on the obtained data, the mechanism that explains the role of the intermediate metal layer was proposed. The mechanism is that the deposited layer of metallic nickel forms additional contacts between the substrate surface and the electrochromic film. The nickel layer can also assist in securing the electrochromic film, and during film deposition has a positive effect on current distribution. On the other hand, the lower reversibility of the coloration-bleaching process of the film on ITO-Ni coating can be explained by gradual oxidation of metallic nickel in the basic medium. At the same time, it was revealed that deposition of metallic nickel leads to some decrease of the substrate transparency.


Keywords


electrochromism; electrodeposition; thin films; Ni(OH)2; nickel; indium-tin oxide; nickel hydroxide

References


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Kotok, V. A., Kovalenko, V. L., Kovalenko, P. V., Solovov, V. A., Deabate, S., Mehdi, A. et. al. (2017). Advanced electrochromic Ni(OH)2/PVA films formed by electrochemical template synthesis. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12 (13), 3962–3977.

Kotok, V., Kovalenko, V. (2017). The electrochemical cathodic template synthesis of nickel hydroxide thin films for electrochromic devices: role of temperature. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (11 (86)), 28–34. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.97371

Kotok, V. A., Malyshev, V. V., Solovov, V. A., Kovalenko, V. L. (2017). Soft Electrochemical Etching of FTO-Coated Glass for Use in Ni(OH) 2 -Based Electrochromic Devices. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 6 (12), P772–P777. doi: 10.1149/2.0071712jss

Dixit, M. (1999). Zinc-Substituted α-Nickel Hydroxide as an Electrode Material for Alkaline Secondary Cells. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 146 (1), 79. doi: 10.1149/1.1391567

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Kovalenko, V. L., Kotok, V. A., Sykchin, A. A., Mudryi, I. A., Ananchenko, B. A., Burkov, A. A. et. al. (2016). Nickel hydroxide obtained by high-temperature two-step synthesis as an effective material for supercapacitor applications. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 21 (3), 683–691. doi: 10.1007/s10008-016-3405-2

Kovalenko, V., Kotok, V., Bolotin, O. (2016). Definition of factors influencing on Ni(OH)2 electrochemical characteristics for supercapacitors. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 5 (6 (83)), 17–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79406

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Lyalin, B. V., Petrosyan, V. A. (2010). Oxidation of organic compounds on NiOOH electrode. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, 46 (11), 1199–1214. doi: 10.1134/s1023193510110017

Rao, Y., Wang, Y., Ning, H., Li, P., Wu, M. (2016). Hydrotalcite-like Ni(OH)2 Nanosheets in Situ Grown on Nickel Foam for Overall Water Splitting. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8 (49), 33601–33607. doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b11023

Yan, J., Wu, H., Chen, H., Pang, L., Zhang, Y., Jiang, R. et. al. (2016). One-pot hydrothermal fabrication of layered β-Ni(OH) 2 /g-C 3 N 4 nanohybrids for enhanced photocatalytic water splitting. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 194, 74–83. doi: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.04.048

Kotok, V., Kovalenko, V. (2017). Electrochromism of Ni(OH)2 films obtained by cathode template method with addition of Al, Zn, Co ions. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3 (12 (87)), 38–43. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.103010

Vidotti, M., van Greco, C., Ponzio, E. A., Córdoba de Torresi, S. I. (2006). Sonochemically synthesized Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 nanoparticles and their application in electrochromic electrodes. Electrochemistry Communications, 8 (4), 554–560. doi: 10.1016/j.elecom.2006.01.024

Jiang, S., Yuan, G., Hua, C., Khan, S., Wu, Z., Liu, Y. et. al. (2017). Electrochromic Properties of Ni/NiO/rGO Nanocomposite Films Prepared by a Facile Sol-Gel Technique. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 164 (13), H896–H902. doi: 10.1149/2.1231713jes

Zhu, L., Nuo Peh, C. K., Zhu, T., Lim, Y.-F., Ho, G. W. (2017). Bifunctional 2D-on-2D MoO3 nanobelt/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets for supercapacitor-driven electrochromic energy storage. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5 (18), 8343–8351. doi: 10.1039/c7ta01858d

Dong, W., Lv, Y., Zhang, N., Xiao, L., Fan, Y., Liu, X. (2017). Trifunctional NiO–Ag–NiO electrodes for ITO-free electrochromic supercapacitors. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 5 (33), 8408–8414. doi: 10.1039/c7tc03120c

Lin, S.-H., Chen, F.-R., Kai, J.-J. (2008). Electrochromic properties of nano-composite nickel oxide film. Applied Surface Science, 254 (11), 3357–3363. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.11.022

Fortunato, E., Ginley, D., Hosono, H., Paine, D. C. (2007). Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics. MRS Bulletin, 32 (03), 242–247. doi: 10.1557/mrs2007.29

Mirletz, H. M., Peterson, K. A., Martin, I. T., French, R. H. (2015). Degradation of transparent conductive oxides: Interfacial engineering and mechanistic insights. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 143, 529–538. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.07.030

Kurdesau, F., Khripunov, G., da Cunha, A. F., Kaelin, M., Tiwari, A. N. (2006). Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 352 (9-20), 1466–1470. doi: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2005.11.088

Thirumoorthi, M., Thomas Joseph Prakash, J. (2016). Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 4 (1), 124–132. doi: 10.1016/j.jascer.2016.01.001

Jeyadheepa, K., Karthick, P., Vijayanara, D., Suja, S., Sridharan, M. (2015). Opto-Electronic Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Films Deposited by Nebulized Spray Pyrolysis Method. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 8 (4), 259–268. doi: 10.3923/ajaps.2015.259.268

Du, J., Chen, X., Liu, C., Ni, J., Hou, G., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X. (2014). Highly transparent and conductive indium tin oxide thin films for solar cells grown by reactive thermal evaporation at low temperature. Applied Physics A, 117 (2), 815–822. doi: 10.1007/s00339-014-8436-x

Bicelli, L. P., Bozzini, B., Mele, C., D'Urzo, L. (2008). A Review of Nanostructural Aspects of Metal Electrodeposition. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 3, 356–408.


GOST Style Citations


Urban planning and building smart cities based on the Internet of Things using Big Data analytics / Rathore M. M., Ahmad A., Paul A., Rho S. // Computer Networks. 2016. Vol. 101. P. 63–80. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2015.12.023 

A Review on Internet of Things Solutions for Intelligent Energy Control in Buildings for Smart City Applications / Khajenasiri I., Estebsari A., Verhelst M., Gielen G. // Energy Procedia. 2017. Vol. 111. P. 770–779. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.239 

Smart Windows: Energy Efficiency with a View // NREL. URL: https://www.nrel.gov/news/features/2010/1555.html

Advanced electrochromic Ni(OH)2/PVA films formed by electrochemical template synthesis / Kotok V. A., Kovalenko V. L., Kovalenko P. V., Solovov V. A., Deabate S., Mehdi A. et. al. // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2017. Vol. 12, Issue 13. P. 3962–3977.

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. The electrochemical cathodic template synthesis of nickel hydroxide thin films for electrochromic devices: role of temperature // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 11 (86). P. 28–34. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.97371 

Soft Electrochemical Etching of FTO-Coated Glass for Use in Ni(OH) 2 -Based Electrochromic Devices / Kotok V. A., Malyshev V. V., Solovov V. A., Kovalenko V. L. // ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. 2017. Vol. 6, Issue 12. P. P772–P777. doi: 10.1149/2.0071712jss 

Dixit M. Zinc-Substituted α-Nickel Hydroxide as an Electrode Material for Alkaline Secondary Cells // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 1999. Vol. 146, Issue 1. P. 79. doi: 10.1149/1.1391567 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V., Malyshev V. Comparison of oxygen evolution parameters on different types of nickel hydroxide // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 5, Issue 12 (89). P. 12–19. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.109770 

Nickel hydroxide obtained by high-temperature two-step synthesis as an effective material for supercapacitor applications / Kovalenko V. L., Kotok V. A., Sykchin A. A., Mudryi I. A., Ananchenko B. A., Burkov A. A. et. al. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2016. Vol. 21, Issue 3. P. 683–691. doi: 10.1007/s10008-016-3405-2 

Definition of factors influencing on Ni(OH)2 electrochemical characteristics for supercapacitors / Kovalenko V., Kotok V., Bolotin O. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2016. Vol. 5, Issue 6 (83). P. 17–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79406 

Amjad M. The Oxidation of Alcohols at a Nickel Anode in Alkaline t-Butanol/Water Mixtures // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 1977. Vol. 124, Issue 2. P. 203. doi: 10.1149/1.2133266 

Lyalin B. V., Petrosyan V. A. Oxidation of organic compounds on NiOOH electrode // Russian Journal of Electrochemistry. 2010. Vol. 46, Issue 11. P. 1199–1214. doi: 10.1134/s1023193510110017 

Hydrotalcite-like Ni(OH)2 Nanosheets in Situ Grown on Nickel Foam for Overall Water Splitting / Rao Y., Wang Y., Ning H., Li P., Wu M. // ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2016. Vol. 8, Issue 49. P. 33601–33607. doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b11023 

One-pot hydrothermal fabrication of layered β-Ni(OH) 2 /g-C 3 N 4 nanohybrids for enhanced photocatalytic water splitting / Yan J., Wu H., Chen H., Pang L., Zhang Y., Jiang R. et. al. // Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2016. Vol. 194. P. 74–83. doi: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.04.048 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. Electrochromism of Ni(OH)2 films obtained by cathode template method with addition of Al, Zn, Co ions // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 3, Issue 12 (87). P. 38–43. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.103010 

Sonochemically synthesized Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 nanoparticles and their application in electrochromic electrodes / Vidotti M., van Greco C., Ponzio E. A., Córdoba de Torresi S. I. // Electrochemistry Communications. 2006. Vol. 8, Issue 4. P. 554–560. doi: 10.1016/j.elecom.2006.01.024 

Electrochromic Properties of Ni/NiO/rGO Nanocomposite Films Prepared by a Facile Sol-Gel Technique / Jiang S., Yuan G., Hua C., Khan S., Wu Z., Liu Y. et. al. // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2017. Vol. 164, Issue 13. P. H896–H902. doi: 10.1149/2.1231713jes 

Bifunctional 2D-on-2D MoO3 nanobelt/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets for supercapacitor-driven electrochromic energy storage / Zhu L., Nuo Peh C. K., Zhu T., Lim Y.-F., Ho G. W. // Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2017. Vol. 5, Issue 18. P. 8343–8351. doi: 10.1039/c7ta01858d 

Trifunctional NiO–Ag–NiO electrodes for ITO-free electrochromic supercapacitors / Dong W., Lv Y., Zhang N., Xiao L., Fan Y., Liu X. // Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 2017. Vol. 5, Issue 33. P. 8408–8414. doi: 10.1039/c7tc03120c 

Lin S.-H., Chen F.-R., Kai J.-J. Electrochromic properties of nano-composite nickel oxide film // Applied Surface Science. 2008. Vol. 254, Issue 11. P. 3357–3363. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.11.022 

Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics / Fortunato E., Ginley D., Hosono H., Paine D. C. // MRS Bulletin. 2007. Vol. 32, Issue 03. P. 242–247. doi: 10.1557/mrs2007.29 

Degradation of transparent conductive oxides: Interfacial engineering and mechanistic insights / Mirletz H. M., Peterson K. A., Martin I. T., French R. H. // Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2015. Vol. 143. P. 529–538. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.07.030 

Comparative study of ITO layers deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature / Kurdesau F., Khripunov G., da Cunha A. F., Kaelin M., Tiwari A. N. // Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 2006. Vol. 352, Issue 9-20. P. 1466–1470. doi: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2005.11.088 

Thirumoorthi M., Thomas Joseph Prakash J. Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique // Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies. 2016. Vol. 4, Issue 1. P. 124–132. doi: 10.1016/j.jascer.2016.01.001 

Opto-Electronic Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Films Deposited by Nebulized Spray Pyrolysis Method / Jeyadheepa K., Karthick P., Vijayanara D., Suja S., Sridharan M. // Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2015. Vol. 8, Issue 4. P. 259–268. doi: 10.3923/ajaps.2015.259.268 

Highly transparent and conductive indium tin oxide thin films for solar cells grown by reactive thermal evaporation at low temperature / Du J., Chen X., Liu C., Ni J., Hou G., Zhao Y., Zhang X. // Applied Physics A. 2014. Vol. 117, Issue 2. P. 815–822. doi: 10.1007/s00339-014-8436-x 

A Review of Nanostructural Aspects of Metal Electrodeposition / Bicelli L. P., Bozzini B., Mele C., D'Urzo L. // Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2008. Vol. 3. P. 356–408.







Copyright (c) 2018 Valerii Kotok, Vadym Kovalenko

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061