DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.140560

Investigation of the properties of Ni(OH)2 electrochrome films obtained in the presence of different types of polyvinyl alcohol

Valerii Kotok, Vadym Kovalenko

Abstract


Electrochromic films were prepared by cathodic template synthesis in the presence of two types of polyvinyl alcohol: with the hydrolysis degree of 99 % and 85 %. The prepared films show differences in structural, morphological, electrochromic and electrochemical characteristics. Both films were X-ray amorphous and had different shapes of the curve on the XRD patterns in the region of small 2q angles, which corresponds to differences in the direction of 001. Comparison of the morphology of the films prepared from solutions containing PVA with different hydrolysis degrees revealed that the film prepared in the presence of 99 % hydrolyzed PVA has a relatively flat relief with small sizes of bumps. On the other hand, the film prepared in the presence of 85 % hydrolyzed PVA had worse uniformity. Its relief had wavy lines, the height of which reached 1.2 µm. Cyclic voltammograms of both films were also different. CVA of the film prepared in the presence of 85 % hydrolyzed PVA had sharp anodic and cathodic peaks that are similar in height. The potentials of the peaks were +600 and +700 mV. The film prepared in the presence of 99 % hydrolyzed PVA showed broader peaks, with the anodic peak shifted to more positive values (+900 mV). Electrochromic characteristics of both films also differed significantly. The film deposited in the presence 85 % hydrolyzed PVA had a high coloration rate (60 s), but lower coloration degree (18 %). On the other hand, the film deposited in the presence of 99 % hydrolyzed PVA had a coloration rate that is three times slower (200 s), but higher absolute coloration degree (24 %). Several mechanisms that explain such differences in the behavior of the films prepared in the presence of different PVA types have been proposed.


Keywords


electrochromism; electrodeposition; thin films; Ni(OH)2; nickel; polyvinyl alcohol; hydrolysis degree; nickel hydroxide

References


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Jaśkaniec, S., Hobbs, C., Seral-Ascaso, A., Coelho, J., Browne, M. P., Tyndall, D. et. al. (2018). Low-temperature synthesis and investigation into the formation mechanism of high quality Ni-Fe layered double hydroxides hexagonal platelets. Scientific Reports, 8 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22630-0

Solovov, V., Kovalenko, V., Nikolenko, N., Kotok, V., Vlasova, E. (2017). Influence of temperature on the characteristics of Ni(II), Ti(IV) layered double hydroxides synthesised by different methods. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (6 (85)), 16–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90873

Raoof, J. B., Ojani, R., Hosseini, S. R. (2013). An Electrochemical Investigation of Methanol Oxidation on Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles. South African Journal of Chemistry, 66, 47–53.

Calderón, J. A., Jiménez, J. P., Zuleta, A. A. (2016). Improvement of the erosion-corrosion resistance of magnesium by electroless Ni-P/Ni(OH) 2 -ceramic nanoparticle composite coatings. Surface and Coatings Technology, 304, 167–178. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.04.063

Kotok, V. A., Kovalenko, V. L., Solovov, V. A., Kovalenko, P. V., Ananchenko, B. A. (2018). Effect of deposition time on properties of electrochromic nickel hydroxide films prepared by cathodic template synthesis. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13 (9), 3076–3086.

Niu, C., Wu, X., Ren, W., Chen, X., Shi, P. (2015). Mechanical properties of low k SiO2 thin films templated by PVA. Ceramics International, 41, S365–S369. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.03.242

Miyake, K., Hirota, Y., Uchida, Y., Nishiyama, N. (2016). Synthesis of mesoporous MFI zeolite using PVA as a secondary template. Journal of Porous Materials, 23 (5), 1395–1399. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-016-0199-7

Thomas, D., Cebe, P. (2016). Self-nucleation and crystallization of polyvinyl alcohol. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 127 (1), 885–894. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-016-5811-1

Aslam, M., Kalyar, M. A., Raza, Z. A. (2018). Polyvinyl alcohol: A review of research status and use of polyvinyl alcohol based nanocomposites. Polymer Engineering & Science. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.24855

Chana, J., Forbes, B., Jones, S. A. (2008). The Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Partially Hydrolysed Poly(vinyl alcohol) Grades Suitable for Nanoparticle Fabrication. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 8 (11), 5739–5747. doi: https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2008.475

Dunn, A. S., Naravane, S. R. (2007). Structural Differences Between Similar Commercial Grades of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Acetate. British Polymer Journal, 12 (2), 75–77. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.4980120207

Kawakami, H., Mori, N., Kawashima, K., Sumi, M. (1963). The relationship between manufacturing conditions of polyvinyl alcohol and the properties polyvinyl alcohol fibers. Sen’i Gakkaishi, 19 (3), 192–197. doi: https://doi.org/10.2115/fiber.19.192

Henderson, B., Loveridge, N., Robertson, W. R. (1978). A quantitative study of the effects of different grades of polyvinyl alcohol on the activities of certain enzymes in unfixed tissue sections. The Histochemical Journal, 10 (4), 453–463. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01003008

Brough, C., Miller, D. A., Keen, J. M., Kucera, S. A., Lubda, D., Williams, R. O. (2015). Use of Polyvinyl Alcohol as a Solubility-Enhancing Polymer for Poorly Water Soluble Drug Delivery (Part 1). AAPS PharmSciTech, 17 (1), 167–179. doi: https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-015-0458-y

Kotok, V., Kovalenko, V. (2017). Electrochromism of Ni(OH)2 films obtained by cathode template method with addition of Al, Zn, Co ions. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3 (12 (87)), 38–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.103010

Kovalenko, V., Kotok, V. (2018). Influence of ultrasound and template on the properties of nickel hydroxide as an active substance of supercapacitors. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3 (12 (93)), 32–39. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.133548

Kovalenko, V., Kotok, V. (2017). Study of the influence of the template concentration under homogeneous precepitation on the properties of Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 4 (6 (88)), 17–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.106813

Ecsedi, Z., Lazău, I., Păcurariu, C. (2007). Synthesis of mesoporous alumina using polyvinyl alcohol template as porosity control additive. Processing and Application of Ceramics, 1 (1-2), 5–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/pac0702005e

Pon-On, W., Meejoo, S., Tang, I.-M. (2008). Formation of hydroxyapatite crystallites using organic template of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Materials Chemistry and Physics, 112 (2), 453–460. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2008.05.082

Miyake, K., Hirota, Y., Uchida, Y., Nishiyama, N. (2016). Synthesis of mesoporous MFI zeolite using PVA as a secondary template. Journal of Porous Materials, 23 (5), 1395–1399. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-016-0199-7


GOST Style Citations


Silverio-Fernández M., Renukappa S., Suresh S. What is a smart device? – a conceptualisation within the paradigm of the internet of things // Visualization in Engineering. 2018. Vol. 6, Issue 1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40327-018-0063-8 

Smart Tint. URL: https://www.smarttint.com/

Making Smart Windows that Are Also Cheap. URL: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/420221/making-smart-windows-that-are-also-cheap/

One material, multiple functions: graphene/Ni(OH)2 thin films applied in batteries, electrochromism and sensors / Neiva E. G. C., Oliveira M. M., Bergamini M. F., Marcolino L. H., Zarbin A. J. G. // Scientific Reports. 2016. Vol. 6, Issue 1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep33806 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. The electrochemical cathodic template synthesis of nickel hydroxide thin films for electrochromic devices: role of temperature // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 11 (86). P. 28–34. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.97371 

Soft Electrochemical Etching of FTO-Coated Glass for Use in Ni(OH) 2 -Based Electrochromic Devices / Kotok V. A., Malyshev V. V., Solovov V. A., Kovalenko V. L. // ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. 2017. Vol. 6, Issue 12. P. P772–P777. doi: https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0071712jss 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. Definition of the aging process parameters for nickel hydroxide in the alkaline medium // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 2, Issue 12 (92). P. 54–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.127764 

Dixit M. Zinc-Substituted α-Nickel Hydroxide as an Electrode Material for Alkaline Secondary Cells // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 1999. Vol. 146, Issue 1. P. 79. doi: https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1391567 

Advanced electrochromic Ni(OH)2/PVA films formed by electrochemical template synthesis / Kotok V. A., Kovalenko V. L., Kovalenko P. V., Solovov V. A., Deabate S., Mehdi A. et. al. // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2017. Vol. 12, Issue 13. P. 3962–3977.

Nickel Hydroxide Supercapacitor with a Theoretical Capacitance and High Rate Capability Based on Hollow Dendritic 3D-Nickel Current Collectors / Kim S.-W., Kim I.-H., Kim S.-I., Jang J.-H. // Chemistry – An Asian Journal. 2017. Vol. 12, Issue 12. P. 1291–1296. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/asia.201700454 

Low-temperature synthesis and investigation into the formation mechanism of high quality Ni-Fe layered double hydroxides hexagonal platelets / Jaśkaniec S., Hobbs C., Seral-Ascaso A., Coelho J., Browne M. P., Tyndall D. et. al. // Scientific Reports. 2018. Vol. 8, Issue 1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22630-0 

Influence of temperature on the characteristics of Ni(II), Ti(IV) layered double hydroxides synthesised by different methods / Solovov V., Kovalenko V., Nikolenko N., Kotok V., Vlasova E. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 1, Issue 6 (85). P. 16–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90873 

Raoof J. B., Ojani R., Hosseini S. R. An Electrochemical Investigation of Methanol Oxidation onNickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles // South African Journal of Chemistry. 2013. Vol. 66. P. 47–53.

Calderón J. A., Jiménez J. P., Zuleta A. A. Improvement of the erosion-corrosion resistance of magnesium by electroless Ni-P/Ni(OH) 2 -ceramic nanoparticle composite coatings // Surface and Coatings Technology. 2016. Vol. 304. P. 167–178. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.04.063 

Effect of deposition time on properties of electrochromic nickel hydroxide films prepared by cathodic template synthesis / Kotok V. A., Kovalenko V. L., Solovov V. A., Kovalenko P. V., Ananchenko B. A. // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2018. Vol. 13, Issue 9. P. 3076–3086.

Mechanical properties of low k SiO2 thin films templated by PVA / Niu C., Wu X., Ren W., Chen X., Shi P. // Ceramics International. 2015. Vol. 41. P. S365–S369. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.03.242 

Synthesis of mesoporous MFI zeolite using PVA as a secondary template / Miyake K., Hirota Y., Uchida Y., Nishiyama N. // Journal of Porous Materials. 2016. Vol. 23, Issue 5. P. 1395–1399. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-016-0199-7 

Thomas D., Cebe P. Self-nucleation and crystallization of polyvinyl alcohol // Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 2016. Vol. 127, Issue 1. P. 885–894. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-016-5811-1 

Aslam M., Kalyar M. A., Raza Z. A. Polyvinyl alcohol: A review of research status and use of polyvinyl alcohol based nanocomposites // Polymer Engineering & Science. 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.24855 

Chana J., Forbes B., Jones S. A. The Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Partially Hydrolysed Poly(vinyl alcohol) Grades Suitable for Nanoparticle Fabrication // Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2008. Vol. 8, Issue 11. P. 5739–5747. doi: https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2008.475 

Dunn A. S., Naravane S. R. Structural Differences Between Similar Commercial Grades of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Acetate // British Polymer Journal. 2007. Vol. 12, Issue 2. P. 75–77. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.4980120207 

The relationship between manufacturing conditions of polyvinyl alcohol and the properties polyvinyl alcohol fibers / Kawakami H., Mori N., Kawashima K., Sumi M. // Sen'i Gakkaishi. 1963. Vol. 19, Issue 3. P. 192–197. doi: https://doi.org/10.2115/fiber.19.192 

Henderson B., Loveridge N., Robertson W. R. A quantitative study of the effects of different grades of polyvinyl alcohol on the activities of certain enzymes in unfixed tissue sections // The Histochemical Journal. 1978. Vol. 10, Issue 4. P. 453–463. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01003008 

Use of Polyvinyl Alcohol as a Solubility-Enhancing Polymer for Poorly Water Soluble Drug Delivery (Part 1) / Brough C., Miller D. A., Keen J. M., Kucera S. A., Lubda D., Williams R. O. // AAPS PharmSciTech. 2015. Vol. 17, Issue 1. P. 167–179. doi: https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-015-0458-y 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. Electrochromism of Ni(OH)2 films obtained by cathode template method with addition of Al, Zn, Co ions // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 3, Issue 12 (87). P. 38–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.103010 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Influence of ultrasound and template on the properties of nickel hydroxide as an active substance of supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 3, Issue 12 (93). P. 32–39. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.133548

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Study of the influence of the template concentration under homogeneous precepitation on the properties of Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 4, Issue 6 (88). P. 17–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.106813 

Ecsedi Z., Lazău I., Păcurariu C. Synthesis of mesoporous alumina using polyvinyl alcohol template as porosity control additive // Processing and Application of Ceramics. 2007. Vol. 1, Issue 1-2. P. 5–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/pac0702005e 

Pon-On W., Meejoo S., Tang I.-M. Formation of hydroxyapatite crystallites using organic template of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) // Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2008. Vol. 112, Issue 2. P. 453–460. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2008.05.082 

Synthesis of mesoporous MFI zeolite using PVA as a secondary template / Miyake K., Hirota Y., Uchida Y., Nishiyama N. // Journal of Porous Materials. 2016. Vol. 23, Issue 5. P. 1395–1399. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-016-0199-7 







Copyright (c) 2018 Valerii Kotok, Vadym Kovalenko

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061