DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.144243

The role of fatty acid structure in various pure vegetable oils on flame characteristics and stability behavior for industrial furnace

Dony Perdana, I. N. G. Wardana, Lilis Yuliati, Nurkholis Hamidi

Abstract


This study investigates the effects of the fatty acid composition of various vegetable oils on the behavior of flames in the combustion process. The research is important for the substitution of fossil fuel using environmentally friendly vegetable oil. Five oils were tested including coconut oil, palm kernel oil, cotton seed oil, ceiba petandra oil and jatropha curcas oil. The oils were burned on an open tray at various air speeds performing three combustion regions, i. e., premixed combustion at the upstream region followed by transition region and diffusion combustion region at the downstream. Flame stability was tested at an air speed of 49 cm/s, 55 cm/s, and 64 cm/s. The image of the flame was recorded using a high-speed video camera at the rate of 200 frames per second. The flame temperature was measured by the K-type thermocouple. The results show that the higher saturated fatty acid content makes the flame brighter and more wavelet numbers present at the flame front maintaining the flame stability at a wide range of air speeds. The saturated fatty acid has a high flash point which is difficult to be burned at the flame front and escaping to burn as diffusion flame at the downstream region. The fatty acid content also affects the flame color which is evident in jatropha curcas oil with mostly a premixed/blue flame color and producing the highest thermal energy, while coconut oil is mostly a diffusion flame/yellow color. The longer ignition delay is shown in coconut oil because of the high saturated fatty acid content. The higher the unsaturated fatty acid content makes the flame more unstable. This shows that the bright yellow diffusion flame color is a good source of radiation thermal energy for flame stability. The flame color and the flame stability data are very valuable for designing efficient and stable industrial furnace with vegetable oil. This study gives insight into the influence of fatty acid chemical structure and physical properties on the combustion characteristics for thermal energy production. When high-temperature gas is needed in the industrial furnace, vegetable oil with unsaturated fatty acids is the choice by keeping the lower air speed. But when the industrial furnace with stable combustion process is the goal, the oil with saturated fatty acids is the best for a wide range of air speeds.


Keywords


vegetable oil, fatty acid content, combustion process, flame color, flame stability

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References


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Redel-Macías, M. D., Pinzi, S., Leiva-Candia, D. E., Cubero-Atienza, A. J., Dorado, M. P. (2013). Influence of fatty acid unsaturation degree over exhaust and noise emissions through biodiesel combustion. Fuel, 109, 248–255. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.12.019

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GOST Style Citations


Demirbas A. Biofuels securing the planet’s future energy needs // Energy Conversion and Management. 2009. Vol. 50, Issue 9. P. 2239–2249. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.05.010 

Use of vegetable oil as fuel to improve the efficiency of cooking stove / Natarajan R., Karthikeyan N. S., Agarwaal A., Sathiyanarayanan K. // Renewable Energy. 2008. Vol. 33, Issue 11. P. 2423–2427. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.01.022 

Wardana I. N. G. Combustion characteristics of jatropha oil droplet at various oil temperatures // Fuel. 2010. Vol. 89, Issue 3. P. 659–664. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.07.002 

Sherena K. M., Thangaraj T. Biodiesel an alternative efuel produced from plant oils by transesterifikasi // Electronic Journal of Biology. 2009. Vol. 5, Issue 3. P. 67–74.

McCarthy P., Rasul M. G., Moazzem S. Analysis and comparison of performance and emissions of an internal combustion engine fuelled with petroleum diesel and different bio-diesels // Fuel. 2011. Vol. 90, Issue 6. P. 2147–2157. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.02.010 

The effect of Rh 3+ catalyst on the combustion characteristics of crude vegetable oil droplets / Nanlohy H. Y., Wardana I. N. G., Hamidi N., Yuliati L., Ueda T. // Fuel. 2018. Vol. 220. P. 220–232. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.02.001 

Hellier P., Ladommatos N., Yusaf T. The influence of straight vegetable oil fatty acid composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions // Fuel. 2015. Vol. 143. P. 131–143. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.11.021 

Balat M. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils: A Survey // Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects. 2007. Vol. 29, Issue 10. P. 895–913. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00908310500283359 

Myo T. The Effect of Fatty Acid Composition on the Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel // The Research Reports of the Faculty of Engineering. No. 50. Kagoshima University, 2008.

Gopinath A., Puhan S., Nagarajan G. Effect of unsaturated fatty acid esters of biodiesel fuels on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine // International journal of energy and environment. 2010. Vol. 1, Issue 3. P. 411–430.

Effect of biodiesel unsaturated fatty acid on combustion characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine / Puhan S., Saravanan N., Nagarajan G., Vedaraman N. // Biomass and Bioenergy. 2010. Vol. 34, Issue 8. P. 1079–1088. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.02.017 

Influence of fatty acid unsaturation degree over exhaust and noise emissions through biodiesel combustion / Redel-Macías M. D., Pinzi S., Leiva-Candia D. E., Cubero-Atienza A. J., Dorado M. P. // Fuel. 2013. Vol. 109. P. 248–255. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.12.019 

Improving Vegetable Oil Properties by Transforming Fatty Acid Chain Length in Jatropha Oil and Coconut Oil Blends / Wahyudi, Wardana I. N. G., Widodo A., Wijayanti W. // Energies. 2018. Vol. 11, Issue 2. P. 394. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020394 

Herbinet O., Pitz W. J., Westbrook C. K. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate // Combustion and Flame. 2008. Vol. 154, Issue 3. P. 507–528. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.03.003 

Studies of C4 and C10 methyl ester flames / Wang Y. L., Feng Q., Egolfopoulos F. N., Tsotsis T. T. // Combustion and Flame. 2011. Vol. 158, Issue 8. P. 1507–1519. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.12.032 







Copyright (c) 2018 Dony Perdana, I. N. G. Wardana, Lilis Yuliati, Nurkholis Hamidi

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061